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A rapid flow cytometric screening test for X-linked lymphoproliferative disease due to XIAP deficiency. Cytometry B Clin Cytom

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA.
Cytometry Part B Clinical Cytometry (Impact Factor: 2.28). 09/2009; 76(5):334-44. DOI: 10.1002/cyto.b.20473
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Deficiency of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), caused by BIRC4 gene mutations, is the second known cause of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), a rare primary immunodeficiency that often presents with life-threatening hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Rapid diagnosis of the known genetic causes of HLH, including XIAP deficiency, facilitates the initiation of life-saving treatment and preparation for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Until now, a rapid screening test for XIAP deficiency has not been available.
To develop a flow cytometric screening test for XIAP deficiency, we first used lymphoblastic cell lines generated from controls and patients with BIRC4 mutations to identify two commercially available antibodies specific for native intracellular XIAP. Next, we used these antibodies to study control whole blood leukocyte XIAP expression. We then studied XIAP expression in leukocytes from patients with XLP due to BIRC4 mutations, maternal carriers, and patients following HCT.
XIAP was expressed by the majority of all whole blood nucleated cells in normal controls. In contrast, XIAP was absent or decreased in all lymphocyte subsets, monocytes and granulocytes from four unrelated patients with XLP due to BIRC4 mutations. Bimodal distribution of XIAP expression was evident in two maternal carriers, with significant skewing toward cells expressing normal XIAP. Bimodal distribution was also observed in a patient following HCT.
Flow cytometric analysis of intracellular XIAP provides a rapid screening test for XLP due to XIAP deficiency. It also allows carrier detection and can be used to monitor donor versus recipient reconstitution following HCT.

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    • "Flow cytometric measurement of XIAP can also be used for monitoring of lineage-specific donor chimerism in the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) (Figure 3).(Marsh et al., 2009b) Similarly, flow cytometry can be used to monitor donor chimerism within the SAP-expressing lymphocyte populations in patients with SAP deficiency who have undergone allogeneic HCT. "
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    ABSTRACT: X-linked lymphoproliferative disease is a rare congenital immunodeficiency that is most often caused by mutations in SH2D1A, the gene encoding signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP). XLP caused by SAP deficiency is most often characterized by fulminant mononucleosis/EBV- associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), lymphoma, and dysgammaglobulinemia. XLP has also been found to be caused by mutations in BIRC4, the gene encoding X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP). Patients with XIAP deficiency often present with HLH or recurrent HLH, which may or may not be associated with EBV. XLP is prematurely lethal in the majority of cases. While genetic sequencing can provide a genetic diagnosis of XLP, a more rapid means of diagnosis of XLP is desirable. Rapid diagnosis is especially important in the setting of HLH, as this may hasten the initiation of life-saving medical treatments and expedite preparations for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Flow cytometry offers a means to quickly screen patients for XLP. Flow cytometry can be used to measure lymphocyte SAP or XIAP protein expression, and can also be used to observe lymphocyte phenotypes and functional defects that are unique to XLP. This review will give a brief overview of the clinical manifestations and molecular basis of SAP deficiency and XIAP deficiency, and will focus on the use of flow cytometry for diagnosis of XLP.
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    ABSTRACT: A major focus of our research is to understand the molecular and cellular basis of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), a rare and often fatal immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the SH2D1A gene, which encodes the adaptor molecule SAP. Recently, we observed that SAP is essential for the development of natural killer T (NKT) cells, a lymphocyte population that participates in protection against certain tumors, infections, and autoimmune states. In this review, we describe the approaches that we are taking to understand the role of SAP in immune cells, including NKT cells. By using SAP as the focal point of our studies, we hope to identify novel signaling pathways that could be targeted to improve the treatment for patients with XLP as well as more common disorders, such as autoimmunity and cancer.
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