Cell cycle regulators, such as cyclinD1 and p53, play major roles in the tumor response to radiation and chemotherapy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Pin1-mediated prolyl-isomerization potentiates cell cycle progression and cell proliferation, including the regulation of cyclinD1 and p53. Herein, we investigated the effect of Pin1 in association with cyclinD1 and p53 on the sensitivity of esophageal SCC to chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The expression levels of Pin1, cyclinD1 and p53 were examined immunohistochemically in endoscopic biopsy specimens from 68 advanced esophageal SCC patients before CRT to determine whether their expression levels predicted the clinical effectiveness of CRT in individual cancers. Forty-six of the 68 patients (67.6%) had an effective response to CRT, whereas 22 patients (32.4%) had an ineffective response. There was no significant correlation between clinical responses and expression levels of cyclinD1 or p53. However, the clinical response of the high Pin1 expression group was significantly higher than that of the low expression group (P=0.0200). Moreover, our data indicate that the combined immunohistochemical evaluation of Pin1, cyclinD1 and p53 expression in pretreatment biopsy samples is a useful indicator of sensitivity to CRT in advanced esophageal SCC. Thus, Pin1 may influence cyclinD1 and p53 functions and predict CRT sensitivity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The value of p53 status for predicting response to chemotherapy-based treatment in patients with esophageal cancer has been controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to elucidate the correlation of p53 status with the response to chemotherapy-based treatment.
Studies were searched in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science (up to September 2012). The p53 status and response to therapy were defined and standardized. Subgroup analyses based on the treatment and histopathology were performed to explore the usefulness of p53 status for predicting response to therapy in esophageal cancer. Sensitivity analyses were conducted by removing specific studies to assess the effects of study quality.
We included 28 studies with 1497 cases in our meta-analysis. Wild-type form of p53 status (low expression of p53 protein and/or wild-type p53 gene) was associated with high response to chemotherapy-based treatment in esophageal cancer (total major response [MR]: risk ratio [RR] = 1.09, 95 % CI = 1.03-1.16, P = .003; pathological MR: RR = 1.15, 95 % CI = 1.06-1.25, P = .001; total complete response [CR]: RR = 1.08, 95 % CI = 1.00-1.17, P = .040). The similar correlation between the wild-type form p53 and response to therapy were also detected in subgroup analyses (total MR, pathological MR, and total CR in chemoradiotherapy subgroup; total MR in chemotherapy subgroup; total MR and pathological CR in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma [ESCC]). Additionally, patients with wild-type form p53 status had high pathological complete response rate to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in ESCC.
The current meta-analysis suggested that p53 status might be a predictive biomarker for response to chemotherapy-based treatment in esophageal cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Essential hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and the early-diagnosis is very important for the prevention of essential hypertension. Previously, we found that Pin1, the only known enzyme isomerizing pSer/pThr-Pro motifs in proteins, may gradually become inactive under conditions of stress such as intracellular acidification and fever. Interestingly, essential hypertension and the dysfunction of Pin1 often synchronously occur with the increasing age. Recent evidence indicates that Pin1 primarily increases the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the production of nitric oxide (NO) in multiple ways, significantly promoting the relaxation response of blood vessels and preventing the elevation of blood pressure. Further, the inhibition of Pin1 results in significantly increased blood pressure in rats. So, we hypothesized and evaluated the potential of Pin1 to be a new early-diagnostic biomarker as well as a therapeutic drug for essential hypertension. The unique activity of Pin1 and some epidemiological and experimental data evidence that the decreased activity of Pin1 may be closely associated with the development of essential hypertension. The factors that may impact the activity of Pin1 and correlate with the risk of essential hypertension were also discussed. These findings indicate that Pin1 plays a key and permanent role in efficiently preventing the development of essential hypertension, and that Pin1 may be a promising early-diagnostic biomarker as well as an effective therapeutic drug for the early-diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of essential hypertension, potentially decreasing the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Medical Hypotheses 08/2013; 81(5). DOI:10.1016/j.mehy.2013.08.020 · 1.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Pin1 promotes oncogenesis by regulating multiple oncogenic signaling. In this study, we investigated the involvement of Pin1 in tumor progression and in the prognosis of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).ResultsWe observed that proliferation, clonogenicity and tumorigenesis of CE81T cells were inhibited by Pin1 knockdown. We next analyzed Pin1 expression in clinical ESCC specimens. When compared to the corresponding non-tumor part, Pin1 protein and mRNA levels in tumor part were higher in 84% and 62% patients, respectively. By immunohistochemistry, we identified that high Pin1 expression was associated with higher primary tumor stage (p = 0.035), higher overall cancer stage (p = 0.047) and poor overall survival (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the association between expression of Pin1 and levels of ß-catenin and cyclin D in cell line and clinical specimens was evaluated. ß-catenin and cyclin D1 were decreased in CE81T cells with Pin1 knockdown. Cyclin D1 level correlated with Pin1 expression in clinical ESCC specimens.Conclusions
Pin1 upregulation was associated with advanced stage and poor prognosis of ESCC. Pin1 knockdown inhibited aggressiveness of ESCC cells. ß-catenin and cyclin D1 were positively regulated by Pin1. These results indicated that targeting Pin1 pathway could represent a potential modality for treating ESCC.
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