Enterocyte-Specific Inactivation of SIRT1 Reduces Tumor Load in the APC+/min Mouse Model

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 06/2013; 8(6):e66283. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066283
Source: PubMed


SIRT1 is a mammalian NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase implicated in metabolism, development, aging and tumorigenesis. Prior studies that examined the effect of enterocyte-specific overexpression and global deletion of SIRT1 on polyp formation in the intestines of APC(+/min) mice, a commonly used model for intestinal tumorigenesis, yielded conflicting results, supporting either tumor-suppressive or tumor-promoting roles for SIRT1, respectively. In order to resolve the controversy emerging from these prior in vivo studies, in the present report we examined the effect of SIRT1 deficiency confined to the intestines, avoiding the systemic perturbations such as growth retardation seen with global SIRT1 deletion. We crossed APC(+/min) mice with mice bearing enterocyte-specific inactivation of SIRT1 and examined polyp development in the progeny. We found that SIRT1-inactivation reduced total polyp surface (9.3 mm(2) vs. 23.3 mm(2), p = 0.01), average polyp size (0.24 mm(2) vs. 0.51 mm(2), p = 0.005) and the number of polyps >0.5 mm in diameter (14 vs. 23, p = 0.04), indicating that SIRT1 affects both the number and size of tumors. Additionally, tumors in SIRT1-deficient mice exhibited markedly increased numbers of cells undergoing apoptosis, suggesting that SIRT1 contributes to tumor growth by enabling survival of tumor cells. Our results indicate that SIRT1 acts as a tumor promoter in the APC(+/min) mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis.

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    • "The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is one of the main driving forces of intestinal cell differentiation. Of note, the relationship between β-catenin and SIRT1 has been extensively studied in both mouse and cell lines, producing conflicting results [11], [12]. Neither the number nor the localization of proliferative cells upon BrdU incorporation was different between Sirt1int−/− and Sirt1L2/L2 mice (Figure S4A). "
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    ABSTRACT: Dysfunction of Paneth and goblet cells in the intestine contributes to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Here, we report a role for the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase SIRT1 in the control of anti-bacterial defense. Mice with an intestinal specific Sirt1 deficiency (Sirt1int-/-) have more Paneth and goblet cells with a consequent rearrangement of the gut microbiota. From a mechanistic point of view, the effects on mouse intestinal cell maturation are mediated by SIRT1-dependent changes in the acetylation status of SPDEF, a master regulator of Paneth and goblet cells. Our results suggest that targeting SIRT1 may be of interest in the management of IBD and CAC.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e102495. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102495 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "APC+/min mice bearing enterocyte-specific inactivation of SIRT1 showed that SIRT1-inactivation reduced the total number and surface of polyps and tumors. Moreover, tumors in SIRT1-deficient mice exhibited markedly increased numbers of cells undergoing apoptosis [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The Wnt signaling pathway is often chronically activated in diverse human tumors, and the Frizzled (FZD) family of receptors for Wnt ligands, are central to propagating oncogenic signals in a β-catenin-dependent and independent manner. SIRT1 is a class III histone deacetylase (HDAC) that deacetylates histone and non-histone proteins to regulate gene transcription and protein function. We previously demonstrated that SIRT1 loss of function led to a significant decrease in the levels of Dishevelled (Dvl) proteins. To further explore this connection between the sirtuins and components of the Wnt pathway, we analyzed sirtuin-mediated regulation of FZD proteins. Here we explore the contribution of sirtuin deacetylases in promoting constitutive Wnt pathway activation in breast cancer cells. We demonstrate that the use of small molecule inhibitors of SIRT1 and SIRT2, and siRNA specific to SIRT1, all reduce the levels of FZD7 mRNA. We further demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of SIRT1/2 causes a marked reduction in FZD7 protein levels. Additionally, we show that β-catenin and c-Jun occupy the 7 kb region upstream of the transcription start site of the FZD7 gene, and SIRT1 inhibition leads to a reduction in the occupancy of both β-catenin and c-Jun at points along this region. This work uncovers a new mechanism for the regulation of FZD7 and provides a critical new link between the sirtuins and FZD7, one of the earliest nodal points from which oncogenic Wnt signaling emanates. This study shows that inhibition of specific sirtuins may provide a unique strategy for inhibiting the constitutively active Wnt pathway at the level of the receptor.
    PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e98861. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0098861 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Elucidation of the mechanisms of oncogenesis in colorectal cancer mainly relies on animal models (8). Animal models of colorectal cancer can be established using skin injection of xylene (9), subcutaneous injection of primary cells in nude mice (10), primary cell implantation (11), high-fat, high-sugar diet (12) and APC gene knockout in mice (13,14). "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that disruption of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway is an important cause of intestinal cancer in human and animal models. Thus, the purpose of this study was to construct a Balb/C model of colorectal polyps. Pregnant mice at 9.5 days gestation were injected via the tail vein with the pSES-Si BMP4 plasmid bearing a fluorochrome (DsRed) reporter, in order to silence the BMP4 gene in the first generation (F1); this group of mice was named the pSES-BMP4 group Intestinal fluorescence was detected at 1-, 4- and 8-week‑old F1 mice, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western-blotting assays were used to determine changes in the expression of BMP4. A dissecting microscope and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining were used to observe the cell morphology and appearance of the polyps. DsRed fluorescence was observed in the intestines of 1-week-old F1 mice of the pSES-BMP4 group. BMP4 expression at the mRNA and protein level was reduced in 1-, 4- and 8-week-old F1 mice (P<0.05). However, the level of Smad4 mRNA was only reduced in 8-week-old F1 mice (P<0.05). Multiple hyperplasic polyps emerged in the colon and rectum of the intestines of 4-week-old F1 mice in the pSES-BMP4 group. The size of colorectal polyps increased at 8 weeks, when vessels and polyp pedicles became apparent. In conclusion, silencing of the BMP4 gene using transplacental RNAi injection can induce formation of colorectal polyps in mice.
    Molecular Medicine Reports 05/2014; 10(1). DOI:10.3892/mmr.2014.2216 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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