Antidepressant-like effect of the extract of Rosmarinus officinalis in mice: involvement of the monoaminergic system.
ABSTRACT Rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Labiatae) has several therapeutic applications in folk medicine in curing or managing a wide range of diseases, including depression. In this study, the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of the stems and leaves of this plant was investigated in two behavioral models, the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) in mice. The extract of R. officinalis produced an antidepressant-like effect, since the acute treatment of mice with the extract by p.o. route significantly reduced the immobility time in the FST (100 mg/kg) and TST (10-100 mg/kg), as compared to a control group, without accompanying changes in ambulation in the open-field test. Moreover, the repeated administration (14 days) of the hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis by p.o. route also produced an antidepressant-like effect in the TST (100-300 mg/kg). The pretreatment of mice with p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 100 mg/kg, i.p., an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, for 4 consecutive days), NAN-190 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist), ketanserin (5 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist), 1-(m-chlorophenyl) biguanide (mCPBG, 10 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(3) receptor agonist), prazosin (1 mg/kg, i.p., an alpha(1-)adrenoceptor antagonist), SCH23390 (0.05 mg/kg, s.c., a dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist) or sulpiride (50 mg/kg, i.p., a dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist), but not yohimbine (1 mg/kg, i.p., an alpha(2-)adrenoceptor antagonist) was able to reverse the anti-immobility effect of the extract (10 mg/kg, p.o.) in the TST. The combination of MDL72222, (0.1 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist) with a sub-effective dose of the extract of R. officinalis (1 mg/kg, p.o.) produced an anti-immobility effect in the TST. The results suggest that the antidepressant action of the extract of R. officinalis is mediated by an interaction with the monoaminergic system and that this plant should be further investigated as an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of depression.
Article: Short-term study on the effects of rosemary on cognitive function in an elderly population.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has traditional reputations that justify investigation for a potential role in reducing widespread cognitive decline in the elderly. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, repeated-measures crossover study was conducted to investigate possible acute effects of dried rosemary leaf powder on cognitive performance. Twenty-eight older adults (mean age, 75 years) were tested using the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment system 1, 2.5, 4, and 6 hours following a placebo and four different doses of rosemary. Doses were counterbalanced, and there was a 7-day washout between visits. There was a biphasic dose-dependent effect in measures of speed of memory: the lowest dose (750 mg) of rosemary had a statistically significant beneficial effect compared with placebo (P=.01), whereas the highest dose (6,000 mg) had a significant impairing effect (P<.01). There were significant deleterious effects on other measures of cognitive performance, although these were less consistent. Speed of memory is a potentially useful predictor of cognitive function during aging. The positive effect of the dose nearest normal culinary consumption points to the value of further work on effects of low doses over the longer term.Journal of medicinal food 08/2011; 15(1):10-7. · 1.39 Impact Factor