Characterization of porcine factor VII, X and comparison with human factor VII, X

Key Laboratory of Transplant Engineering and Immunology, Ministry of Health, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, PR China.
Blood Cells Molecules and Diseases (Impact Factor: 2.33). 04/2009; 43(1):111-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.bcmd.2009.02.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Factor VII (FVII) and factor X (FX) are two predominant molecules of coagulation cascade. Whether porcine FVII and FX could efficiently work in human circulation is important for successful pig to human liver transplantation. We compared the genetic characterizations and coagulation activities of porcine and human FVII and FX to shed insight into the further investigation of potential inter-species molecular incompatibility between porcine FVII, FX and human derived procoagulants and anticoagulants in xenotransplantation.
Multiple rounds of PCR were used to screen the positive clones from a porcine liver tissue cDNA library. 5' RACE and 3' RACE were conducted to get the full-length cDNA. The three-dimensional structure of protein was modeled by Swiss-Model program. Prothrombin Time (PT) of porcine and human plasma was determined by coagulation autoanalyzer. Activities of porcine FVII and FX were detected by adding the porcine plasma into FVII or FX-deficient human plasma.
We cloned the full-length cDNA of porcine FVII and FX, which contained 1416 bp and 1856 bp, coding 445 and 479 amino acids, respectively. Porcine FVII and FX shared 74.08% and 73.1% amino acid identities with human FVII and FX. Sequence alignments showed that porcine FVII might have additional gamma-carboxyglutamic acid in Gla domain, and one important variation of Lys62-Glu in light chain. No significant difference was observed in TF binding region of heavy chain, while 4 variations were identified in the important functional residues responsible for proteolysis activity, as Gln217-Glu, Thr151-Lys, Glu154-Val and Gln40-Leu. However, no apparent change was displayed in the 3-D model of the heavy chain of porcine FVII. When porcine FX was analyzed, great variations have been found at active peptide (Ser143 to Arg194) with only 11.6% identity. Some important variations at gamma-carboxyglutamic acids and Ca(2+) binding sites were identified, while high conservations were discovered at other functional sites. Comparisons on 3-D protein models demonstrated that the protein backbones of porcine and human FX were highly conserved, and little difference was shown at the molecular surface of anticoagulant binding sites S2 and S3. PT detection of porcine and human plasma showed similar results, while coagulation activities of porcine FVII and FX were remarkably higher than that of human.
Porcine FVII and FX showed relatively high homology with human FVII and FX in nucleotide, amino acid sequences and three-dimensional structure. However, the different affinities to important macromolecules caused by genetic differences might contribute to the molecular incompatibilities in liver xenotransplantation.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Schneider MKJ, Seebach JD. Xenotransplantation literature update: May–October, 2009.Xenotransplantation 2009; 16: 555–562. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
    Xenotransplantation 11/2009; 16(6):555-62. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-3089.2009.00561.x · 1.78 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: If "bridging" to allo-transplantation (Tx) is to be achieved by a pig liver xenograft, adequate hepatic function needs to be assured. We have studied hepatic function in baboons after Tx of livers from alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO, n=1) or GTKO pigs transgenic for CD46 (GTKO/CD46, n=5). Monitoring was by liver function tests and coagulation parameters. Pig-specific proteins in the baboon serum/plasma were identified by Western blot. In four baboons, coagulation factors were measured. The results were compared with values from healthy humans, baboons, and pigs. Recipient baboons died or were euthanized after 4 to 7 days after internal bleeding associated with profound thrombocytopenia. However, parameters of liver function, including coagulation, remained in the near-normal range, except for some cholestasis. Western blot demonstrated that pig proteins (albumin, fibrinogen, haptoglobin, and plasminogen) were produced by the liver from day 1. Production of several pig coagulation factors was confirmed. After the Tx of genetically engineered pig livers into baboons (1) many parameters of hepatic function, including coagulation, were normal or near normal; (2) there was evidence for production of pig proteins, including coagulation factors; and (3) these appeared to function adequately in baboons although interspecies compatibility of such proteins remains to be confirmed.
    Transplantation 09/2010; 90(5):483-93. DOI:10.1097/TP.0b013e3181e98d51 · 3.78 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Animal experimentation is necessary to characterize human diseases and design adequate therapeutic interventions. In renal transplantation research, the limited number of in vitro models involves a crucial role for in vivo models and particularly for the porcine model. Pig and human kidneys are anatomically similar (characterized by multilobular structure in contrast to rodent and dog kidneys unilobular). The human proximity of porcine physiology and immune systems provides a basic knowledge of graft recovery and inflammatory physiopathology through in vivo studies. In addition, pig large body size allows surgical procedures similar to humans, repeated collections of peripheral blood or renal biopsies making pigs ideal for medical training and for the assessment of preclinical technologies. However, its size is also its main drawback implying expensive housing. Nevertheless, pig models are relevant alternatives to primate models, offering promising perspectives with developments of transgenic modulation and marginal donor models facilitating data extrapolation to human conditions.
    BioMed Research International 03/2011; 2011(1110-7243):532127. DOI:10.1155/2011/532127 · 2.71 Impact Factor
Show more