The mixture of creatinine, activated charcoal and water was stirred. As a result the conversion of creatinine into two products was observed. (1)H, (13)C NMR and HMBC spectra were recorded and the chemical shifts assigned. Two uremic toxins: creatol and N-methylguanidine were identified. To interpret the NMR data obtained, the optimum structure of creatol, which can exist in the forms of seven tautomers, has been calculated using the DFT B3LYP/6-311G(2d,p) method. The influence of the solvent was described by the polarizable continuum model (PCM). The calculated energy of the most energetically stable tautomeric form A is lower by 12.2, 16.9, 33.8, 81.5, 106.3, 130.4kJ/mol in water than that of the tautomers B-G, respectively, which suggests that the A form of creatol should prevail in solution. In DMSO, the calculated energy of the most energetically stable tautomeric form A is lower than that of both D and B and the remaining tautomeric forms (C, E-G) are less energetically stable. Subsequently, we sought the correlations between the experimental and the calculated chemical shifts of protons and carbons-13 for the forms -A, B (in water) and A, B, D (in DMSO) - of creatol. The population of the A tautomer is predominant in both H(2)O and DMSO. We have also recorded the spectra of creatol and N-methylguanidine at different pH. Our data are complete enough to be used in the analysis of body fluids.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Creatinine (Crn) is one of the main intrinsic hydroxyl radical (•OH) scavengers and an ideal one for healthy or normal mammals, although this fact has not yet become widely accepted. Our results from urinary data estimated that ca. 0.4-0.6% of Crn is used daily to scavenge •OH in normal mammals [ca. 50 μmole and ca. 400 pmole of •OH in healthy subjects and normal rats, respectively]. In human subjects, Crn reacts non-enzymatically with •OH to form creatol (CTL: 5-hydroxycreatinine) and demethylcreatinine (DMC) in a one to one ratio, and CTL partially decomposes to methylguanidine (MG). And so, the scavenged mole of •OH by Crn is nearly equal to their molar total sum (CTL + MG + DMC) or 2 × (CTL + MG). The molar ratio of (scavenged •OH)/Crn in healthy subjects and normal rats are 4.4 and 6.0 mmole/mole, respectively, i.e. almost similar, but in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) the ratio increases up to ca. 60 mmole/mole in proportion to the severity of CKD. Since the level of Crn might not be enough to scavenge all •OH, and MG starts accumulating as a uremic toxin, Crn is not really the ideal scavenger. 5-Hydroxy-1-methylhydantoin (HMH, NZ-419), a Crn metabolite, is another antioxidant, having •OH scavenging ability, and has been shown to inhibit the progression of CKD in rats in stead of Crn, if sufficient amounts are given orally.
Drug discoveries & therapeutics 08/2011; 5(4):162-75. DOI:10.5582/ddt.2011.v5.4.162
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Key background information, examples, and more recent techniques of computational prediction of 1H and 13C chemical shifts, are presented. A major step in calculating chemical shifts is to compute the NMR isotropic shielding constants for the various nuclei in the molecule. Migda and Rys noted that subtracting computed 13C isotropic shielding constants from TMS values resulted in mean absolute errors 2-3 times greater than when they used the intercept of a linear regression plot. An option for locating conformers involves running relaxed or rigid potential energy surface scans around the various rotatable bonds in the molecule of interest. In 2007, Zhang et al. compiled optimized bond lengths and angles for small organic molecules for which experimental bond distances and angles were also available and found that even HF can reproduce bond distances to about 0.01 Å resolution and bond angles to approximately 0.5.
Chemical Reviews 11/2011; 112(3):1839-62. DOI:10.1021/cr200106v · 46.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uraemic toxins-creatol and N-methylguanidine-are generated in conversion of creatinine in water in the presence of various forms of carbon such as fullerene C60, carbon-encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes and oxygen. The conversion degree for creatinine was different for fullerene C60, CEMNPs, and MWCNTs and was 9% (3.6% creatol, 5.4% N-methylguanidine), 35% (12% creatol, 23% N-methylguanidine), and 75% (16% creatol, 59% N-methylguanidine), respectively.
09/2013; 2013(4):168512. DOI:10.1155/2013/168512
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