Long-term oncological outcomes in women undergoing radical cystectomy and orthotopic diversion for bladder cancer.

Department of Urology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA.
The Journal of urology (Impact Factor: 3.75). 04/2009; 181(5):2052-8; discussion 2058-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2009.01.020
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We compared oncological outcomes in women undergoing radical cystectomy and orthotopic diversion for bladder transitional cell carcinoma.
From 1990 to 2005, 201 women underwent radical cystectomy, including 120 with an orthotopic neobladder. Median followup was 8.6 years. The clinical course, and pathological and oncological outcomes in these 120 women were analyzed and compared to those in 81 women undergoing radical cystectomy and cutaneous diversion during the same period.
Overall 3 of 120 women (2.5%) who received a neobladder died perioperatively. In this group the tumor was pathologically organ confined in 73 patients (61%), extravesical in 18 (15%) and lymph node positive in 29 (24%). Overall 5 and 10-year recurrence-free survival was 62% and 55%, respectively. Five and 10-year recurrence-free survival in patients with organ confined and extravesical disease was similar at 75% and 67%, and 71% and 71%, respectively. Patients with lymph node positive disease had significantly worse 5 and 10-year recurrence-free survival (24% and 19%, respectively). One woman had recurrence in the urethra and 2 (1.7%) had local recurrence. As stratified by pathological subgroups, similar outcomes were observed when comparing women with an orthotopic neobladder to the 81 who underwent cutaneous diversion.
Orthotopic diversion does not compromise the oncological outcome in women after radical cystectomy for bladder transitional cell carcinoma. Excellent local and urethral control may be expected. Women with node positive disease are at highest risk for recurrence. Similar outcomes were observed in women undergoing cutaneous diversion.

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The aim of this study was to examine preoperative patients’ characteristics associated with the urinary diversion (UD) type (continent vs. incontinent) after radical cystectomy (RC) and UD-associated postoperative complications. Materials In 2011, 679 bladder cancer patients underwent RC at 18 European tertiary care centers. Data were prospectively collected within the ‘PROspective MulticEnTer RadIcal Cystectomy Series 2011’ (PROMETRICS 2011). Logistic regression models assessed the impact of preoperative characteristics on UD type and evaluated diversion-related complication rates. Results Of 570 eligible patients, 28.8, 2.6, 59.3, and 9.3 % received orthotopic neobladders, continent cutaneous pouches, ileal conduits, and ureterocutaneostomies, respectively. In multivariable analyses, female sex (odds ratio [OR] 3.9; p = 0.002), American Society of Anesthesiologists score ≥3 (OR 2.3; p = 0.02), an age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥3 (OR 4.1; p 0.001), and a positive biopsy of the prostatic urethra in the last transurethral resection of the bladder prior to RC (OR 4.9; p = 0.03) were independently associated with incontinent UD. There were no significant differences in 30- and/or 90-day complication rates between the UD types. Perioperative transfusion rates and 90-day mortality were significantly associated with incontinent UD (p 0.001, respectively). Limitations included the small sample size and a certain level of heterogeneity in the application of clinical pathways between the different participating centers. Conclusions Within this prospective contemporary cohort of European RC patients treated at tertiary care centers, the majority of patients received an incontinent UD. Female sex and pre-existing comorbidities were associated with receiving an incontinent UD. The risk of overall complications did not vary according to UD type.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 08/2014; 22(3). DOI:10.1245/s10434-014-4029-3 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The incidence, treatment, and outcome of urethral recurrence (UR) after radical cystectomy (RC) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer with orthotopic neobladder in women have rarely been addressed in the literature. Patients and Methods: A total of 12 patients (median age at recurrence: 60 years) who experienced UR after RC with an orthotopic neobladder were selected for this study from a cohort of 456 women from participating institutions. The primary clinical and pathological characteristics at RC, including the manifestation of the UR and its treatment and outcome, were reviewed. Results: The primary bladder tumors in the 12 patients were urothelial carcinoma in 8 patients, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma in 1 patient each, and mixed histology in 2 patients. Three patients (25%) had lymph node-positive disease at RC. The median time from RC to the detection of UR was 8 months (range 4-55). Eight recurrences manifested with clinical symptoms and 4 were detected during follow-up or during a diagnostic work-up for clinical symptoms caused by distant metastases. Treatment modalities were surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and bacillus Calmette-Guérin urethral instillations. Nine patients died of cancer. The median survival after the diagnosis of UR was 6 months. Conclusions: UR after RC with an orthotopic neobladder in females is rare. Solitary, noninvasive recurrences have a favorable prognosis when detected early. Invasive recurrences are often associated with local and distant metastases and have a poor prognosis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Urologia Internationalis 08/2014; DOI:10.1159/000363112 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeRadical cystectomy currently is the treatment of choice in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. However, cystectomy is associated with considerable morbidity. Bladder sparing treatment consists of transurethral resection of the tumor (with or without partial cystectomy), external beam radiotherapy, and brachytherapy. The purpose of this study is to compare bladder preservation with brachytherapy to cystectomy by a systematic review.Material and methodsA systematic review was conducted using PubMed electronic database. Article selection was done independently by two authors. Data were extracted on cause-specific survival and overall survival at 2, 5, and 10 years. Comparison of the two treatment modalities was done by a Weibull survival analysis with metaregression analysis and estimation of Hazard Ratio's (HR's) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).ResultsLarge differences in tumor staging and tumor grading were found between cystectomy and bladder sparing series. The adjusted HR's for cause-specific survival and overall survival were 1.27 (95% CI: 1.15-1.40) and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.84-0.87), respectively for bladder sparing relative to radical cystectomy.ConclusionsRobustness of the analysis is hampered by the retrospective character of the study and differences in patient characteristics. For selected cases, bladder sparing by brachytherapy leads to at least similar overall survival compared to radical cystectomy for muscle invasive bladder cancer.
    Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy 06/2014; 6(2):191-9. DOI:10.5114/jcb.2014.43777

David F Penson