Enhanced post-learning memory consolidation is influenced by arousal predisposition and emotion regulation but not by stimulus valence or arousal.
ABSTRACT Emotionally arousing stimuli are more memorable than neutral ones and arousal induced after learning enhances later retrieval. However, there is as yet little study of how stimulus qualities might interact with induced arousal and how individual differences might influence the modulation of memory. Thus, the present study examined the effect of arousal induced after learning on memory for words that varied in both arousal and valence quality, as well as the influence of three individual differences factors that are known to influence arousal response: emotional suppression, emotional reappraisal, and arousal predisposition. Seventy-six adults (57 female) viewed and rated 60 words that normatively ranged from high to low in arousal and valence. Ten minutes later, they viewed a 3-min comedic or neutral video clip. Arousal induced after learning enhanced 1-week delayed memory, spanning the lengthy task without preference for word type or serial position, contrasting with reports of arousal effects interacting with stimulus qualities. Importantly, being predisposed to arousal led to greater enhancement of long-term memory modulation, while the use of emotional reappraisal, which reduces arousal responding, inhibited the ability of arousal to induce memory enhancement. Thus, individual differences that influence arousal responding can contribute to or interfere with memory modulation.
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ABSTRACT: The study examined the effect of negative emotion on consolidation of both item and source memory. Participants learned words read by either a male or female. Then they watched either a negative or a neutral video clip. Memory tests were carried out either 25min or 24h after learning. The study yielded the following findings. First, negative emotion enhanced consolidation of item memory as measured by recognition memory in the 25-min delay, and enhanced consolidation of item memory as measured by free recall in both the 25-min and the 24-h delay. Second, negative emotion had little effect on consolidation of source memory, either in the 25-min or the 24-h delay. These findings provide evidence for the differential effects of negative emotion on item memory and source memory and have implications for using emotion as a strategy to intervene memory consolidation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.Consciousness and Cognition 01/2015; 33C:185-195. DOI:10.1016/j.concog.2014.12.015 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Memory for emotional events is typically more vivid and accurate than memory for neutral ones. The modulation model focuses on the consolidation of memory traces to provide a partial account of enhanced emotional memory. Mediation theory focuses on encoding and retrieval to explain the selective enhancement of memory for emotional aspects of a complex event and why emotional memory also can be enhanced immediately after the experience, before consolidation has occurred. Mediation theory can therefore complement the modulation model, and together they may provide a more comprehensive account of human emotional memory.Current Directions in Psychological Science 12/2013; 22(6):430-436. DOI:10.1177/0963721413498893 · 3.93 Impact Factor
Article: Emotion in the Classroom: An Update[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fourteen years ago, POD member Edward Vela drew attention to the role of emotion in learning. In particular he emphasized the need for faculty to express positive emotions in the classroom. Since then researchers continue to measure the effectiveness of positive emotion in student learning but the field of emotion in the classroom has expanded since Vela's essay. The purpose of this article is to not only update Vela's citations on emotion and learning but to provide a broader perspective on the topic and assist faculty developers. Ashkanasy's five-level model frames the discussion.11/2014; 33(2). DOI:10.1002/tia2.20012