Developmental aspects of sleep hygiene: Findings from the 2004 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America Poll

Saint Joseph's University, Department of Psychology, Philadelphia, PA 19131, USA.
Sleep Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.15). 04/2009; 10(7):771-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2008.07.016
Source: PubMed


To examine the associations between sleep hygiene and sleep patterns in children ages newborn to 10 years. The relationships between key features of good sleep hygiene in childhood and recognizable outcomes have not been studied in large, nationally representative samples.
A national poll of 1473 parents/caregivers of children ages newborn to 10 years was conducted in 2004. The poll included questions on sleep hygiene (poor sleep hygiene operationally defined as not having a consistent bedtime routine, bedtime after 9:00 PM, having a parent present when falling asleep at bedtime, having a television in the bedroom, and consuming caffeinated beverages daily) and sleep patterns (sleep onset latency, frequency of night wakings, and total sleep time).
Across all ages, a late bedtime and having a parent present when the child falls asleep had the strongest negative association with reported sleep patterns. A late bedtime was associated with longer sleep onset latency and shorter total sleep time, whereas parental presence was associated with more night wakings. Those children (ages 3+) without a consistent bedtime routine also were reported to obtain less sleep. Furthermore, a television in the bedroom (ages 3+) and regular caffeine consumption (ages 5+) were associated with shorter total sleep time.
Overall, this study found that good sleep hygiene practices are associated with better sleep across several age ranges. These findings support the importance of common US based recommendations that children of all ages should fall asleep independently, go to bed before 9:00 PM, have an established bedtime routine, include reading as part of their bedtime routine, refrain from caffeine, and sleep in bedrooms without televisions.

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    • "6 to 12 months 39 -Assessment of parents' quality of life after improvement of the child's sleep quality -Minimal checking with systematic extinction -Improvement of sleep quality and depressed mood symptoms of parents -Decrease in co-sleeping Rickert & Johnson, 27 1988 6-54 months 33 (11 in each intervention group, 11 in control group) -Evaluation of the reduction in the number of nocturnal awakenings -Programmed awakening -Systematic extinction -Control -Lower number of nighttime awakenings in both groups that underwent interventions Mindell et al., 24 2009 7 to 18 months 18 to 36 months 206 (7-18 m) 199 (18-36 m) -Changes in maternal mood after improved sleep quality of the child -Positive routines -Decreased sleep latency in children -Decrease in the duration of nocturnal awakenings -Decrease in depressive symptoms in mothers Mindell et al., 25 2011 18 to 48 months 171 -Change in sleep quality of child and mother -Change in maternal self-confidence -Positive routines -Decrease in sleep latency, difficulty falling asleep, number and duration of nocturnal awakenings -Maternal self-confidence improvement -Temporary improvement of the quality of maternal sleep Skuladottir et al., 18 2005 3 to 24 months 79 -Changes in the nocturnal sleep pattern with improved daytime sleep pattern -Positive routines for daytime sleep -Gradual extinction for nighttime sleep -Remodeling for daytime sleep -Increase in nocturnal sleep -Decrease in nocturnal awakenings Adams & Rickert, 26 1989 18 and 48 months 36 (12 in each intervention group; 12 in control group) -Effect on the number of temper tantrums -Positive routines -Gradual extinction -Lower number of temper tantrums and shorter episodes in both intervention groups -Best score in the parents' group positive routines in the Marital Adjustment Scale Eckerberg, 19 2002 4 to 30 months 39 -Effectiveness of written information over verbal instructions by the physician -Gradual extinction -Decrease in sleep latency in both groups -Decrease of awakenings in both groups -Increased chance to go back to sleep on their own in both groups "
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    • "These lifestyle behaviors and routines are rarely practiced in isolation and are typically associated with one another. For example, decreased sleep has been associated with increased screen-viewing (e.g., Owens et al., 1999; Thompson and Christakis, 2005), and having a bedroom TV (e.g., Mindell et al., 2009). In turn, having a bedroom TV has also been associated with other health-risk behaviors such as having fewer family meals (Barr-Anderson et al., 2008). "
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    Frontiers in Psychology 04/2014; 5:374. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00374 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "6-12 months), the relationship between breastfeeding and night wakings appears to be largely mediated by parental presence at sleep onset or nursing to sleep, rather than breastfeeding per se [18] [19]. A later bedtime (after 9pm), caffeine usage, and a television in the bedroom have been linked to sleep disturbance across youth of all ages [1]. Finally, there is some emerging evidence that regular daytime routines are predictive of longer sleep duration in preschoolers and early school-aged children [20]. "
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