Ptpcd-1 is a novel cell cycle related phosphatase that regulates centriole duplication and cytokinesis
ABSTRACT Proper progression of mitosis requires spatio-temporal regulation of protein phosphorylation by orchestrated activities of kinases and phosphatases. Although many kinases, such as Aurora kinases, polo-like kinases (Plks), and cyclin B-Cdk1 are relatively well characterized in the context of their physiological functions at mitosis and regulation of their enzymatic activities during mitotic progression, phosphatases involved are largely unknown. Here we identified a novel protein tyrosine phosphatase containing domain 1 (Ptpcd 1) as a mitotic phosphatase, which shares sequence homology to Cdc14. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that Ptpcd1 partially colocalized with gamma-tubulin, an archetypical centrosomal marker. Overexpression of this phosphatase prevented unscheduled centrosomal amplification in hydroxyurea arrested U2OS cells. Intriguingly, Ptpcd 1-associated and colocalized with polo-like kinase 1(Plk1). Hence, overexpression of Ptpcd1 rescued prometaphase arrest of Plk-1 depleted cells, but resulted in aberrant cytokinesis as did as Plk1 overexpression. These results suggested that Ptpcd1 is involved in centrosomal duplication and cytokinesis.
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ABSTRACT: Faithful transmission of genetic information depends on accurate chromosome segregation as cells exit from mitosis, and errors in chromosomal segregation are catastrophic and may lead to aneuploidy which is the hallmark of cancer. In eukaryotes, an elaborate molecular control system ensures proper orchestration of events at mitotic exit. Phosphorylation of specific tyrosyl residues is a major control mechanism for cellular proliferation and the activities of protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases must be integrated. Although mitotic kinases are well characterized, phosphatases involved in mitosis remain largely elusive. Here we identify a novel variant of mouse protein tyrosine phosphatase containing domain 1 (Ptpcd1), that we named Ptpcd2. Ptpcd1 is a Cdc14 related centrosomal phosphatase. Our newly identified Ptpcd2 shared a significant homology to yeast Cdc14p (34.1%) and other Cdc14 family of phosphatases. By subcellular fractionation Ptpcd2 was found to be enriched in the cytoplasm and nuclear pellets with catalytic phosphatase activity. By means of immunofluorescence, Ptpcd2 was spatiotemporally regulated in a cell cycle dependent manner with cytoplasmic abundance during mitosis, followed by nuclear localization during interphase. Overexpression of Ptpcd2 induced mitotic exit with decreased levels of some mitotic markers. Moreover, Ptpcd2 failed to colocalize with the centrosomal marker γ-tubulin, suggesting it as a non-centrosomal protein. Taken together, Ptpcd2 phosphatase appears a non-centrosomal variant of Ptpcd1 with probable mitotic functions. The identification of this new phosphatase suggests the existence of an interacting phosphatase network that controls mammalian mitosis and provides new drug targets for anticancer modalities.Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 06/2013; 14(6):3669-76. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.6.3669 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: While the importance of protein kinases for the spatial and temporal control of mitotic events has long been recognized, mitotic phosphatases have only recently come into the limelight. It is now well established that protein phosphatases counteract mitotic kinases, so contributing to the generation of switch-like responses at mitotic stage transitions. In addition, the timely dephosphorylation of mitotic phosphoproteins by tightly regulated phosphatases is required for the assembly and stability of the mitotic spindle, the initiation of anaphase, and exit from mitosis. Mitotic phosphatases also emerge as effectors of the DNA damage and spindle assembly checkpoints. These new findings show that protein phosphatases regulate every step of mitosis and provide novel insights into the dynamic and versatile nature of mitotic phosphoregulation.Trends in cell biology 10/2009; 19(10):531-41. DOI:10.1016/j.tcb.2009.06.005 · 12.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cilia are microtubule-based protrusions from the cell surface that are involved in a number of essential signaling pathways, yet little is known about many of the proteins that regulate their structure and function. A number of putative cilia genes have been identified by proteomics and comparative sequence analyses, but functional data are lacking for the vast majority. We therefore monitored the effects in three cell lines of small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of 40 of these genes by high-content analysis. We assayed cilia number, length, and transport of two different cargoes (membranous serotonin receptor 6-green fluorescent protein [HTR6-GFP] and the endogenous Hedgehog [Hh] pathway transcription factor Gli3) by immunofluorescence microscopy; and cilia function using a Gli-luciferase Hh signaling assay. Hh signaling was most sensitive to perturbations, with or without visible structural cilia defects. Validated hits include Ssa2 and mC21orf2 with ciliation defects; Ift46 with short cilia; Ptpdc1 and Iqub with elongated cilia; and Arl3, Nme7, and Ssna1 with distinct ciliary transport but not length defects. Our data confirm various ciliary roles for several ciliome proteins and show it is possible to uncouple ciliary cargo transport from cilia formation in vertebrates.Molecular biology of the cell 02/2011; 22(7):1104-19. DOI:10.1091/mbc.E10-07-0596 · 5.98 Impact Factor