Rotational strength, range of motion, and function in people with unaffected shoulders from various stages of life.

School of Rehabilitation Science, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 1C7, Canada. .
Sports Medicine Arthroscopy Rehabilitation Therapy & Technology 02/2009; 1:4. DOI: 10.1186/1758-2555-1-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Different measurements are used to assess shoulder function, including range of motion, strength, functional performance and self-report function. To understand disablement, it is necessary to understand the relationship between impairments and function in persons without shoulder problems. This study was conducted to enhance existing comparative data in subjects without upper extremity pathology, and to assess the relationships between impairments (range of motion, strength) and self-reported or measured function/disability. The impact of age, gender and dominance was determined.
Two-hundred ninety-four subjects with unaffected shoulders were recruited. The subjects (mean age: 37 years old) were divided into three subgroups, 18-39, 40-59, and over 60 years of age. During a single session, at least two of the following variables were measured: self-reported function (shoulder disability scales), range of motion, isometric rotational strength, or upper limb functional performance (FIT-HaNSA). Two-way analysis of variance was used to determine, for each variable, the effects of age and gender. The relationship between the outcomes was established using Pearson product correlations.
Men were significantly stronger than women for all age categories. There was an age-related decline in strength in men in the over-60 age category. Significant negative correlations between strength and range of motion were demonstrated (-0.22 <r < -0.32). Women had a significantly higher range of motion than men for external rotation in the 40-59 age category. Furthermore, the subjects in the over-60 age category experienced a decrease of range of motion. There was minimal disability reported in all age groups on self-report scales. Only the Simple Shoulder Test demonstrated significant decreases in the over-60 age category and correlated with age (r = -0.202).
Self-reported disability was low in individuals without upper extremity problems, although recruitment of such individuals was difficult in the older age groups due to the high prevalence of shoulder pathology. A low correlation between self-report disability and strength/range of motion in these unaffected subjects reflects the lack of disability reported by all subjects without pathology despite normal variations in strength and motion.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper describes the functional limitations due to normal aging that are associated with difficulties in older persons housing environments. Literature review from occupational therapy, medicine and human kinetics was used to study the evolution of abilities with aging, the prevalence of functional limitations in old age and the implications of these limitations in the use of the housing environment. In addition, the functional limitations used in instruments for assessing and analysing accessibility problems in housing and to evaluate housing were analyzed. Ten functional limitations that may arise with aging and have implications in the use of the housing environment were identified and described. Functional limitations associated with aging are physical, sensory or cognitive impairments. These limitations can be combined to set a specific functional profile of an older person or to establish a generic functional profile of an aging population. Functional profiles can be used to set performance specifications for design or to assess housing environments for community-living older people. Profiles can also be used to adapt the environment to the specific needs of users.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Scapula alata (SA) is a known complication of breast surgery associated with palsy of serratus anterior, but is seldom mentioned. We evaluated the risk factors associated with SA and the relationship of SA with ipsilateral shoulder/arm morbidity in a series of patients enrolled in a trial of post-surgery radiotherapy (RT). METHODS: The trial randomized women with completely resected stage I-II breast cancer to short-course image guided RT, vs. conventional RT. SA, arm volume and shoulder-arm mobility were measured prior to RT and at 1-3 months post-RT. Shoulder/arm morbidities were computed as post-RT percent change relatively to pre-RT measurements. RESULTS: Of 119 evaluable patients, 13 (=10.9%) had pre-RT SA. Age younger than 50 years old, body mass index less than 25 kg/m2, and axillary lymph node dissection, with odds ratios of 4.8 (P=0.009), 6.1 (P=0.016), and 6.1 (P=0.005), respectively. Randomization group was not significant. At 1-3 months post-RT, mean arm volume increased by 4.1% (P=0.036) and abduction decreased by 8.6% (P=0.046) among SA patients, but not among non SA patients. SA resolved in 8, persisted in 5, and appeared in 1 patient. CONCLUSION: Relationship of SA with lower body mass index suggests that SA might have been underestimated in overweight patients. Despite apparent resolution of SA in most patients, pre-RT SA portended an increased risk of shoulder/arm morbidity. We argue that SA warrants further investigation. Incidentally, the observation of SA occurring after RT in one patient represents the second case of post-RT SA reported in the literature.
    World Journal of Surgical Oncology 05/2012; 10(1):86. · 1.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this innovative research study was to describe clinical shoulder complex range of motion (ROM) measures for a young, healthy, and physically active population. This investigation represents a cross-sectional experiment conducted at a military academy-based sports medicine center. Military cadets with no history of shoulder complex injury were assessed within two months of enrollment in the academy; 548 men (18.8 ± 1.0 yr, 75.2 ± 12.2 kg, 178.3 ± 7.4 cm) and 74 women (18.7 ± 0.9 yr, 63.2 ± 8.9 kg, 165.2 ± 6.9 cm) participated. Descriptive measures included cross-body adduction (CAD), flexion (FLX), external rotation (ER0) with the shoulder complex in adduction and elbow flexed to 90°, internal and external rotation (IR, ER) with the shoulder complex at 90° of abduction and elbow flexed to 90° as well as arc (ARC) of IR-ER using standardized clinical quantification techniques. Bilateral and sex differences were evaluated using dependent and independent t-tests, respectively. Percentiles by arm dominance and sex were also calculated for all ROM measures. Data were normally distributed. Active and passive ROM measures indicated significant bilateral differences (P < 0.05) except for ARC. Sex differences (P < 0.05) were noted for active and passive CAD, FLX and ER0 for the dominant arm as well as active and passive CAD, FLX and ARC for the non-dominant arm. These original data provide descriptive measures for shoulder complex ROM excursions, assisting sports medicine practitioners in potentially identifying clinical deficiencies and functional outcomes following shoulder injury.
    Sports Medicine Arthroscopy Rehabilitation Therapy & Technology 09/2012; 4(1):33.

Full-text (3 Sources)

Available from
Jun 5, 2014