Adenovirus serotype 5 infects human dendritic cells via a coxsackievirus–adenovirus receptor-independent receptor pathway mediated by lactoferrin and DC-SIGN
ABSTRACT The coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) is the described primary receptor for adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5), a common human pathogen that has been exploited as a viral vector for gene therapy and vaccination. This study showed that monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs), such as freshly isolated human blood myeloid DCs, plasmacytoid DCs and monocyte-derived DCs, are susceptible to recombinant Ad5 (rAd5) infection despite their lack of CAR expression. Langerhans cells and dermal DCs from skin expressed CAR, but blocking CAR only partly decreased rAd5 infection, together suggesting that other receptor pathways mediate viral entry of these cells. Lactoferrin (Lf), an abundant protein in many bodily fluids known for its antiviral and antibacterial properties, promoted rAd5 infection in all cell populations except plasmacytoid DCs using a CAR-independent process. Lf caused phenotypic differentiation of the DCs, but cell activation played only a minor role in the increase in infection frequencies. The C-type lectin receptor DC-SIGN facilitated viral entry of rAd5-Lf complexes and this was dependent on high-mannose-type N-linked glycans on Lf. These results suggest that Lf present at high levels at mucosal sites can facilitate rAd5 attachment and enhance infection of DCs. A better understanding of the tropism and receptor mechanisms of Ad5 may help explain Ad5 pathogenesis and guide the engineering of improved rAd vectors.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Hearing is one of our main sensory systems and having a hearing disorder can have a significant impact in an individual's quality of life. Sensory neural hearing loss (SNHL) is the most common form of hearing loss; it results from the degeneration of inner ear sensory hair cells and auditory neurons in the cochlea, cells that are terminally differentiated. Stem cell-and gene delivery-based strategies provide an opportunity for the replacement of these cells. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in gene delivery to mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we evaluated the potential of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (hUCMSCs) as a possible source for regenerating inner ear hair cells. The expression of Atoh1 induced the differentiation of hUCMSCs into cells that resembled inner ear hair cells morphologically and immunocytochemically, evidenced by the expression of hair cell-specific markers. The results demonstrated for the first time that hUCMSCs can differentiate into hair cell-like cells, thus introducing a new potential tissue engineering and cell transplantation approach for the treatment of hearing loss.02/2013; 15(1):43-54. DOI:10.1089/cell.2011.0097
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ABSTRACT: Vaccinia virus (VACV) is being developed as a recombinant viral vaccine vector for several key pathogens. Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialised antigen presenting cells that are crucial for the initiation of primary immune responses; however, the mechanisms of uptake of VACV by these cells are unclear. Therefore we examined the binding and entry of both the intracellular mature virus (MV) and extracellular enveloped virus (EV) forms of VACV into vesicular compartments of monocyte-derived DCs. Using a panel of inhibitors, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy we have shown that neither MV nor EV binds to the highly expressed C-type lectin receptors on DCs that are responsible for capturing many other viruses. We also found that both forms of VACV enter DCs via a clathrin-, caveolin-, flotillin- and dynamin-independent pathway that is dependent on actin, intracellular calcium and host-cell cholesterol. Both MV and EV entry were inhibited by the macropinocytosis inhibitors rottlerin and dimethyl amiloride and depended on phosphotidylinositol-3-kinase (PI(3)K), and both colocalised with dextran but not transferrin. VACV was not delivered to the classical endolysosomal pathway, failing to colocalise with EEA1 or Lamp2. Finally, expression of early viral genes was not affected by bafilomycin A, indicating that the virus does not depend on low pH to deliver cores to the cytoplasm. From these collective results we conclude that VACV enters DCs via macropinocytosis. However, MV was consistently less sensitive to inhibition and is likely to utilise at least one other entry pathway. Definition and future manipulation of these pathways may assist in enhancing the activity of recombinant vaccinia vectors through effects on antigen presentation.PLoS Pathogens 04/2010; 6(4):e1000866. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000866 · 8.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adenovirus infection after stem cell transplantation is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in children. A robust T-cell response induced by dendritic cells (DC) is crucial for clearing the virus, suggesting their pivotal role for the response to human adenoviruses (HAdV). Despite the widespread use of adenoviral vectors, the properties and kinetics of HAdV infection of DC have not been addressed yet. We show that a recent clinical HAdV, subgenus C/serotype 2 (strain BB2000-61), infects cells of the myeloid lineage. Infected DC produce early and late viral antigens and show an altered expression of surface markers. Infection of monocytes renders them refractory to differentiation into DC. Additionally, HAdV-infected DC are strong stimulators of CD8+ T cells. In summary, HAdV seems to manipulate the immune response by infection of DC and possibly uses the infection of monocytes as a means to escape recognition by T cells.Journal of General Virology 05/2010; 91(Pt 5):1150-4. DOI:10.1099/vir.0.013920-0 · 3.53 Impact Factor