Evolution, the Five Factor Model, and Levels of Personality

California State University, Long Beach
Journal of Personality (Impact Factor: 2.44). 03/1998; 63(3). DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1995.tb00505.x
Source: CiteSeer


This paper interprets the Five Factor Model as subsuming variation in normative, speciestypical systems with adaptive functions in the human environment of evolutionary adaptedness. It is argued that the evolutionary logic of personality systems is apparent in the patterning of mean sex differences in personality. Personality systems are conceptualized as evolved motivational systems with an affective core. The evolved motive dispositions at the core of personality anchor a hierarchy of levels of cognitive and behavioral functioning aimed at attaining or avoiding the affective states central to these personality systems. Personality systems are seen as often in dynamic conflict within individuals and as highly compartmentalized in their functioning between settings. While variation in personality consists of a range of viable strategies for humans, extremes on these systems tend to be maladaptive, although in at least some cases individuals who approach the maladaptive extremes of indi...

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    • "An exploration of the Five-Factor Model (FFM, Costa & McCrae, 1992) provides an illustration of how an evolutionary perspective may be fruitfully applied to personality psychology. High levels of extraversion describe a suite of cognitions, emotions, and behaviors hypothesized to promote mating (MacDonald, 2006) both directly (e.g., by engaging potential mates) and indirectly by facilitating the formation of friendships and alliances that enable upward social mobility (Denissen, 2008; Nettle, 2006). High levels of agreeableness may promote successful group coordination and the cultivation of interpersonal bonds by motivating individuals to prize cooperation and group goals (Denissen, 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: The current study tested the hypotheses that (1) psychological adaptations calibrate Openness to Experience to facilitate or deter pursuit of short-term mating, and (2) this calibration varies as a function of mating strategy, physical attractiveness, and sex—individual differences that shift the costs and benefits of alternative personality strategies. Participants completed a personality inventory before and after reading vignettes describing mating opportunities of different durations (short- and long-term) with individuals of differing levels of attractiveness. Among study findings, participants presented with short-term mating opportunities with individuals of average attractiveness exhibited down-regulated Openness relative to those presented with highly attractive mates. Moreover, these effects varied as a function of the interaction between participants’ sex, mating strategy, and attractiveness. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that evolved psychological mechanisms adaptively calibrate Openness levels in response to short-term mating opportunities. More broadly, they highlight the heuristic value of an evolutionary framework for the study of personality and individual differences.
    Personality and Individual Differences 12/2015; 81. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2014.12.030 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    • "Agreeableness is strongly related to altruism (Buss, 1996; Goldberg, 1982; MacDonald, 1995; Norman, 1963; Saucier & Goldberg, 1996) and men incur costs when they provision their partner with benefits (Miner et al., 2009), including time, effort (e.g., " I made sure that I looked nice for my partner " ), and money (e.g., " I bought my partner an expensive gift " ) (Buss, 1988). "
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    ABSTRACT: Men perform oral sex on their romantic partner as part of a broader benefit-provisioning mate retention strategy and men higher in Agreeableness are especially likely to provision their partner with benefits. The current research explored whether men's benefit-provisioning mate retention behavior mediated the relationship between their Agreeableness and their oral sex behaviors in their long-term romantic relationship. Men (n = 346) in a committed, sexual, heterosexual relationship completed the Mate Retention Inventory-a 104-item instrument that assesses the frequency with which they performed various mate retention behaviors during the past month, a 40-item personality inventory, and reported on a questionnaire their interest in and the time they spent performing oral sex on their romantic partner during their most recent sexual encounter with her. The results indicated that men higher in Agreeableness reported greater interest in and spent more time performing oral sex on their partner, and that their benefit-provisioning mate retention behaviors partially mediated these relationships. The current research is the first to investigate the relationship between personality dimensions and oral sex behaviors and adds to a growing body of research documenting that mate retention strategies influence sexual behavior.
    Archives of Sexual Behavior 09/2014; 44(6). DOI:10.1007/s10508-014-0371-6 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    • "Along with traits like anxiety, the conscientiousness and compulsivity of OCPD elicit a corresponding constriction of focus (MacDonald, 1995) that inhibits responsiveness to feedback (Fineberg et al., 2010) and impedes the " hierarchical ordering of information based upon relative importance " (Mallinger, 2009, p. 111). The specifics of obsessive attention , in short, are expressed across an array of cognitive (Fineberg et al., 2010; MacDonald, 1995), perceptual (Schneider, 2006; Yovel et al., 2005), and learning situations (Mallinger, 2009) and so embody an important part of the obsessive archetype that can be used diagnostically. Future orientation has an extensive history. "
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    ABSTRACT: With the ultimate goal of better understanding Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD), the present work is a review and critique of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria at the end of their 18 years of use. Problems of specificity (polythetic criteria and failure to employ a hallmark feature) make OCPD an indistinct diagnostic category that consequently contains a plurality of types. Problems of sensitivity (missing elements and concrete expression of signs) make it more difficult to cull OCPD persons from the population at large. Collectively, these problems of specificity and sensitivity have undermined the efficiency of the DSM-IV criteria set; but more importantly, these problems continue to distort the clinical understanding of OCPD generally.
    SAGE Open 07/2013; 3(3). DOI:10.1177/2158244013500675
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