Scale-up analysis for a CHO cell culture process in large-scale bioreactors.
ABSTRACT Bioprocess scale-up is a fundamental component of process development in the biotechnology industry. When scaling up a mammalian cell culture process, it is important to consider factors such as mixing time, oxygen transfer, and carbon dioxide removal. In this study, cell-free mixing studies were performed in production scale 5,000-L bioreactors to evaluate scale-up issues. Using the current bioreactor configuration, the 5,000-L bioreactor had a lower oxygen transfer coefficient, longer mixing time, and lower carbon dioxide removal rate than that was observed in bench scale 5- and 20-L bioreactors. The oxygen transfer threshold analysis indicates that the current 5,000-L configuration can only support a maximum viable cell density of 7 x 10(6) cells mL(-1). Moreover, experiments using a dual probe technique demonstrated that pH and dissolved oxygen gradients may exist in 5,000-L bioreactors using the current configuration. Empirical equations were developed to predict mixing time, oxygen transfer coefficient, and carbon dioxide removal rate under different mixing-related engineering parameters in the 5,000-L bioreactors. These equations indicate that increasing bottom air sparging rate is more efficient than increasing power input in improving oxygen transfer and carbon dioxide removal. Furthermore, as the liquid volume increases in a production bioreactor operated in fed-batch mode, bulk mixing becomes a challenge. The mixing studies suggest that the engineering parameters related to bulk mixing and carbon dioxide removal in the 5,000-L bioreactors may need optimizing to mitigate the risk of different performance upon process scale-up.
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ABSTRACT: The perceived sensitivity of animal cells to hydrodynamic shear has limited agitation and aeration at large-scale. This makes it difficult to ensure adequate mixing of the vessel contents and may lead to inhomogeneities in operational parameters such as temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, and especially pH. The effect of pH shifts and pH perturbations on the cellular responses, in batch culture, of a GS-NS0 mouse myeloma cell line, expressing a recombinant antibody, was investigated. In addition, the effect of extreme pH on the structure of the purified antibody product was studied using isoelectric focusing. The fermentation pH value was shifted abruptly from pH 7.3 to pH values ranging from 6.5 to 9.0. Culture pH was maintained at this new value for the remainder of the fermentation. All pH shifts of above 0.2 units caused a transient increase in apoptosis. However, cultures shifted to pH values between 7.0 and 8.0 continued to grow and the apoptotic fraction returned to initial levels. Cultures shifted to pH values above pH 8.0 and below pH 7.0 did not recover resulting in culture death. For example, a shift to pH 8.5 caused accumulation of cells in the G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle followed by apoptotic death. After the pH shift, maximum specific growth rate was observed over the range pH 7.3 to 7.5 and maximum viable cell number was seen at pH 7.3. Maximum volumetric antibody production, resulting from increased culture longevity, was seen at pH 7.0. It was also observed that glucose consumption increased with increasing pH. In a separate set of experiments cells were subjected to a single pH perturbation ranging in duration from 0 to 600 minutes. Exposure of cells to a pH value greater than 8.5 for more than 10 minutes caused a decrease in the proportion of viable cells and induced a lag in cell growth. At very low pH (6.5) similar effects were seen, but only for extended perturbations (600 min). However, after recovery from the pH perturbation, growth, product secretion and metabolism all returned to original levels. Incubation of the antibody, at the range of pH values investigated, indicated no alterations in the structure of the antibody as determined by the isoelectric focusing pattern.Biotechnology and Bioengineering 11/2001; 75(1):63-73. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This case study focuses on the scale-up of a Sp2/0 mouse myeloma cell line based fed-batch bioreactor process, from the initial 3-L bench scale to the 2,500-L scale. A stepwise scale-up strategy that involved several intermediate steps in increasing the bioreactor volume was adopted to minimize the risks associated with scale-up processes. Careful selection of several available mixing models from literature, and appropriately applying the calculated results to our settings, resulted in successful scale-up of agitation speed for the large bioreactors. Consideration was also given to scale-up of the nutrient feeding, inoculation, and the set-points of operational parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, dissolved carbon dioxide, and aeration in an integrated manner. It has been demonstrated through the qualitative and the quantitative side-by-side comparison of bioreactor performance as well as through a panel of biochemical characterization tests that the comparability of the process and the product was well controlled and maintained during the process scale-up. The 2,500-L process is currently in use for the routine clinical production of Epratuzumab in support of two global Phase III clinical trials in patients with lupus. Today, the 2,500 L, fed-batch production process for Epratuzumab has met all scheduled batch releases, and the quality of the antibody is consistent and reproducible, meeting all specifications, thus confirming the robustness of the process.Biotechnology and Bioengineering 10/2007; 98(1):141-54. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Elevation of lactate, ammonia, osmolality, and carbon dioxide to inhibitory levels was reported to have adverse effects on cell growth and protein productivity in mammalian cell culture. Multivariate analysis methods were used to investigate the roles of these repressing metabolites in a fed-batch CHO cell culture for antibody fusion protein B1 (B1) production. Principal Factor Analysis methodology was applied to manufacturing-scale data of 112 cell culture runs, which identified threshold values of four repressing metabolites as follows: (1) ammonium levels above 5.1 mM inhibit cell growth; (2) both lactate and osmolality levels above 58 mM and 382 mOsm/kg affect cell viability; and (3) carbon dioxide levels at or above 111 mmHg reduce protein quality. These threshold values were then verified by simulations using Monod-type equations and Canonical Correlation. These results suggest that adverse effects on cell growth, productivity, and product quality may be minimized under the ideal cell culture condition, in which the peak values of all four repressing metabolites are maintained below the threshold values. This strategy was evaluated in 45 cell culture runs in 50-L bioreactors. Eight out of 45 runs were operated under the ideal condition, while the remaining 37 runs had at least one repressing metabolite with peak value at or above the threshold. In comparison to the remaining runs, the eight cell culture runs under the ideal condition had 17%, 40%, and 11% higher values in peak viable cell density, final B1 titer, and quality attribute, respectively. The unique methodology used in this study may be generally applicable in characterizing cell culture processes.Biotechnology Progress 01/2008; 24(3):675-83. · 1.85 Impact Factor