Women, economic hardship and the path of survival: HIV/AIDS risk behavior among women receiving HIV/AIDS treatment in Uganda
ABSTRACT The results are presented from a 2005 survey of 377 women in four HIV/AIDS treatment programs in Uganda. The aim of the study was to explore women's economic hardships and the association with four sexual risk behaviors: whether a woman was sexually active in the last 12 months, whether a condom was used during the last sex act, whether she reported having had a sexual partner in the last six months who she suspected had multiple partners and report of forced, coercive or survival sex in the last six months. Few women were sexually active (34%), likely due to the high proportion of widows (49%). Married women were likely to report forced, coercive or survival sex (35%). Eighty-four percent of women reported condom used at last sex act. Forced, coercive or survival sex was associated with number of meals missed per week (AOR=1.125, 95% CI 1.11, 1.587, p<0.05). Sex with a partner in the last six months who a woman suspected had multiple partners was also associated with number of missed meals per week (AOR=2.080, 95% CI 1.084, 3.992). Currently women in Ugandan antiretroviral therapy programs are not likely to be sexually active, except for married women. Many women need to find food and other support, which may put them at risk of forced, coercive or survival sex due to dependency on men.
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ABSTRACT: This paper draws upon recent research in Durban, South Africa to unravel the complexities of care ethics in the context of humanitarian aid. It investigates how the gendering of care shapes the provision of aid in the context of the HIV in Africa constructing an image of 'virile' and 'violent' African masculinity. Humanitarian organisations construct imagined relations of caring, invoking notions of a shared humanity as informing the imperative to facilitate change. This paper draws on varied examples of research and NGO activity to illustrate how these relations of care are strongly gendered. Humanitarian interventions that invoke universalising conceptions of need could instead draw on feminist care ethics that seeks to balance rights, justice and care in ways that attend to the webs of relationships through which specific lived realities are shaped. Essentialising feminized discourses on care result in a skewed analysis of international crises that invariably construct women (and children) as victims in need of care, which at best ignore the lived experiences of men and, at worst, cast men as virile and violent vectors of disease and social disorder.Culture Health & Sexuality 06/2010; 12(5):555-68. DOI:10.1080/13691051003768140 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In Africa, HIV infections occur mostly in stable relationships, yet little is known about the determinants of condom use in this context. We examined condom use among 272 coupled HIV clients in Uganda who had just screened for ART eligibility; 128 had an HIV-positive partner, 47 HIV-negative, and 97 a partner with unknown HIV status. Sixty-six percent reported unprotected sex with their partner over the past 6 months (57-70% across the three subgroups). Multiple variables among socioeconomic characteristics, physical health, social support, and psychosocial adjustment were correlated with condom use in bivariate analysis, but in multivariate analysis, condom use self-efficacy was the only predictor of condom use in the total sample and subgroups; church attendance and physical functioning were also predictors among unknown status couples. This analysis reveals high rates of unprotected sex among coupled HIV clients, regardless of partner's HIV status, and suggests multiple targets for prevention.AIDS and Behavior 02/2010; 14(5):1055-65. DOI:10.1007/s10461-010-9673-4 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Central Asia has experienced a rapid increase in HIV. HIV interventions and prevention programmes are needed that adequately appreciate and account for the ways that ongoing cultural, political and economic changes in this region affect HIV risk reduction efforts. Drawing on relevant literature, this paper provides a contextual foundation to better understand the impact of context on HIV risk behaviour in the countries of Central Asia and to begin the conversation on the contextual factors of Islam and polygamy.Culture Health & Sexuality 03/2010; 12(5):515-27. DOI:10.1080/13691051003658135 · 1.55 Impact Factor