Women, economic hardship and the path of survival: HIV/AIDS risk behavior among women receiving HIV/AIDS treatment in Uganda.
ABSTRACT The results are presented from a 2005 survey of 377 women in four HIV/AIDS treatment programs in Uganda. The aim of the study was to explore women's economic hardships and the association with four sexual risk behaviors: whether a woman was sexually active in the last 12 months, whether a condom was used during the last sex act, whether she reported having had a sexual partner in the last six months who she suspected had multiple partners and report of forced, coercive or survival sex in the last six months. Few women were sexually active (34%), likely due to the high proportion of widows (49%). Married women were likely to report forced, coercive or survival sex (35%). Eighty-four percent of women reported condom used at last sex act. Forced, coercive or survival sex was associated with number of meals missed per week (AOR=1.125, 95% CI 1.11, 1.587, p<0.05). Sex with a partner in the last six months who a woman suspected had multiple partners was also associated with number of missed meals per week (AOR=2.080, 95% CI 1.084, 3.992). Currently women in Ugandan antiretroviral therapy programs are not likely to be sexually active, except for married women. Many women need to find food and other support, which may put them at risk of forced, coercive or survival sex due to dependency on men.
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ABSTRACT: Many studies have attempted to determine the relationship between education and HIV status. However, a complete and causal understanding of this relationship requires analysis of its mediating pathways, focusing on sexual behaviors. We developed a series of hypotheses based on the differential effect of educational attainment on three sexual behaviors. We tested our predictions in a systematic literature review including 65 articles reporting associations between three specific sexual behaviors-sexual initiation, number of partners, and condom use-and educational attainment or school enrollment in sub-Saharan Africa. The patterns of associations varied by behavior. The findings for condom use were particularly convergent; none of the 44 studies using educational attainment as a predictor reviewed found that more educated people were significantly less likely to use condoms. Findings for sexual initiation and number of partners were more complex. The contrast between findings for condom use on the one hand and sexual initiation and number of partners on the other supports predictions based on our theoretical framework.AIDS Care 12/2011; 24(5):562-76. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Little research has examined gender differences in reporting of condom use, which is the goal of our analysis. A baseline study was conducted in two urban clinics and we examined data from sexually active clients entering HIV care who enrolled in a prospective longitudinal cohort study. The primary outcome was consistent condom use and determinant variables were demographics, physical health and immune status, economic well-being, relationship characteristics, psychosocial functioning, and self-efficacy. Of 280 participants, 129 were males and 151 females, and 41.7% had at least some secondary education; 60.7% did not always use condoms. Nearly half (48.1%) of men reported always using condoms compared to 31.8% of females. In bivariate analyses, men who consistently use condoms were more likely to be working, have a primary partner who was HIV negative, to have disclosed their HIV status to their primary partner, and to have higher general self-efficacy and condom use self-efficacy compared to men who did not always use condoms. Higher general self-efficacy and condom use self-efficacy were the only variables associated with reported consistent condom use among women. In regression analysis, working in the last 7 days, general self efficacy, and condom use self-efficacy were associated with consistent condom use among men. These findings reveal low rates of consistent condom use among people living with HIV, and a gender difference with men more likely to report consistent condom use. These data suggest the need for gender sensitive prevention programs and strategies, including programs that can provide women with greater control and self-efficacy regarding use of protective methods.AIDS patient care and STDs 10/2012; · 2.68 Impact Factor