We investigated whether adjuvant immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) cell wall skeleton (CWS) and surgical resection was better than resection, with or without other adjuvant therapy, for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
The case group comprised 71 patients who underwent radical surgery for NSCLC, followed by BCG-CWS immunotherapy, with follow-up data available. The case-control study was designed with one control selected for each case-group patient. Each control was matched by pathological stage and year of birth (+/-5 years). BCG-CWS 200 microg was inoculated intracutaneously in the upper arm four times per week (sensitization phase); then at 4-week intervals (therapeutic phase).
The case-group patients received 45 +/- 22.6 (average +/- SD) cycles of BCG-CWS inoculation. Overall 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 71% and 61% for the case-group patients, and 63% and 43% for the control-group patients. The survival rate of the case group was better than that of the control group (not significant; P = 0.114). The same trend was seen in the patients with stage III or N+ NSCLC (not significant; P = 0.114, P = 0.168). There were no life-threatening adverse events.
BCG-CWS immunotherapy seemed to improve survival after resection of NSCLC, especially locally advanced NSCLC. Moreover, this immunotherapy did not compromise quality of life during treatment.
"BCG-CWS contains a peptidoglycan that is covalently linked to arabinogalactan and mycolic acids (Azuma et al., 1974). Although BCG-CWS has been clinically used for a long time (Hayashi et al., 2009; Kodama et al., 2009), it has not been approved by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan. One of the characteristics of classical BRMs is that they are crude products which are not fully purified. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As well as its local effects, radiotherapy leads to the delayed regression of distant non-irradiated lesions. These abscopal effects are most likely mediated by the innate immune system. Patient 1, a 74-year-old male, had concomitant left supraclavicular lymph node metastases and multiple lung metastases 2 years after complete resection of pathological stage IIA (T1bN1M0) lung adenocarcinoma. He received radiation therapy (RT) of 58 Gy for the supraclavicular lymph node metastases and then innate immunotherapy using the cell wall skeleton of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG-CWS). Three months after the RT and 2 months after the immunotherapy, all lung metastases disappeared on computed tomography scans. Patient 2, a 40-year-old female, underwent stereotactic body RT (SBRT) for metastasis from a deep-seated urothelial carcinoma in the right upper lobe of the lung. Twenty-one months after the SBRT, we started administration of BCG-CWS to two new lesions that had appeared in the left lung. As a result, after 3 months, the lesions completely disappeared. Complete response was maintained for more than 1 year in both patients. We believe that an optimal combination of RT and immunotherapy will elicit abscopal effects that can be employed to attain a systematically achievable, rather than anecdotal, therapeutic goal.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, we have studied spin transport, spin injection and electrical detection in multiterminal mesoscopic spin-valve structures based on Cu and Al as the non-magnetic media, connected to ferromagnetic (Py,Ni and Co) electrodes, with transport contacts.
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