Innate immune therapy with a Bacillus Calmette-Guérin cell wall skeleton after radical surgery for non-small cell lung cancer: a case-control study.
ABSTRACT We investigated whether adjuvant immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) cell wall skeleton (CWS) and surgical resection was better than resection, with or without other adjuvant therapy, for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
The case group comprised 71 patients who underwent radical surgery for NSCLC, followed by BCG-CWS immunotherapy, with follow-up data available. The case-control study was designed with one control selected for each case-group patient. Each control was matched by pathological stage and year of birth (+/-5 years). BCG-CWS 200 microg was inoculated intracutaneously in the upper arm four times per week (sensitization phase); then at 4-week intervals (therapeutic phase).
The case-group patients received 45 +/- 22.6 (average +/- SD) cycles of BCG-CWS inoculation. Overall 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 71% and 61% for the case-group patients, and 63% and 43% for the control-group patients. The survival rate of the case group was better than that of the control group (not significant; P = 0.114). The same trend was seen in the patients with stage III or N+ NSCLC (not significant; P = 0.114, P = 0.168). There were no life-threatening adverse events.
BCG-CWS immunotherapy seemed to improve survival after resection of NSCLC, especially locally advanced NSCLC. Moreover, this immunotherapy did not compromise quality of life during treatment.
- SourceAvailable from: Takatomo SatohAdvancements in Tumor Immunotherapy and Cancer Vaccines, 02/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-307-998-1
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ABSTRACT: Materials used for the past 30 years as immunoadjuvants induce suboptimal antitumor immune responses and often cause undesirable local inflammation. Some bacterial lipopeptides that act as Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 ligands activate immune cells as immunoadjuvants and induce antitumor effects. Here, we developed a new dendritic cell (DC)-targeting lipopeptide, h11c (P2C-ATPEDNGRSFS), which uses the CD11c-binding sequence of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 to selectively and efficiently activate DCs but not other immune cells. Although the h11c lipopeptide activated DCs similarly to an artificial lipopeptide, P2C-SKKKK (P2CSK4), via TLR2 in vitro, h11c induced more effective tumor inhibition than P2CSK4 at low doses in vivo with tumor antigens. Even without tumor antigens, h11c lipopeptide significantly inhibited tumor growth and induced tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells. P2CSK4 was retained subcutaneously at the vaccination site and induced severe local inflammation in in vivo experiments. In contrast, h11c was not retained at the vaccination site and was transported into the tumor within 24 h. The recruitment of DCs into the tumor was induced by h11c more effectively, while P2CSK4 induced the accumulation of neutrophils leading to severe inflammation at the vaccination site. Because CD11b+ cells, but not CD11c+ cells, produced neutrophil chemotactic factors such as macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 in response to stimulation with TLR2 ligands, the DC-targeting lipopeptide h11c induced less MIP-2 production by splenocytes than P2CSK4. In this study, we succeeded in developing a novel immunoadjuvant, h11c, which effectively induces antitumor activity without adverse effects such as local inflammation via the selective activation of DCs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.International Journal of Cancer 05/2014; · 6.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, yet there are still no satisfactory protocols available for treating this disease, emphasizing the urgency for more effective therapies. Recent clinical trials have provided encouraging evidence of the benefits of certain forms of immunotherapy. Here, we summarize recent developments in the area of γδ T-cell therapy for lung cancer in our center. γδ T cells constitute 2%-10% of T lymphocytes in human blood and play a role in immune surveillance against microbial pathogens and, possibly, cancer. These T cells recognize phosphoantigens via polymorphic γδ T-cell antigen receptors (TCR), as well as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related molecules, A and B (MICA and MICB), via nonpolymorphic NKG2D receptors in an MHC-unrestricted manner. This implies that γδ T cells could retain antitumor effects despite reduced expression of MHC and tumor antigens on cancer cells. Thus, clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of γδ T-cell-based immunotherapies for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and solid tumors. This review focuses on the current status of γδ T-cell-based immunotherapy for lung cancer.Surgery Today 05/2011; 41(5):606-11. · 0.96 Impact Factor