Impact of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance to protease inhibitors on evolution of resistance to the maturation inhibitor bevirimat (PA-457).
ABSTRACT The maturation inhibitor bevirimat [3-O-(3',3'dimethysuccinyl)betulinic acid; BVM; also known as PA-457 or DSB] potently inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication by blocking protease (PR)-mediated cleavage at the junction between capsid (CA) and spacer peptide 1 (SP1) in Gag. We previously isolated a panel of single-amino-acid substitutions that confer resistance to BVM in vitro (C. S. Adamson, S. D. Ablan, I. Boeras, R. Goila-Gaur, F. Soheilian, K. Nagashima, F. Li, K. Salzwedel, M. Sakalian, C. T. Wild, and E. O. Freed, J. Virol. 80:10957-10971, 2006). The BVM resistance mutations cluster at or near the CA-SP1 cleavage site. Because BVM likely will be used clinically in patients harboring viruses resistant to PR inhibitors (PIs), in this study we evaluated the interplay between a PI-resistant (PIR) PR and the BVM resistance mutations in Gag. As expected, the PIR mutations had no effect on inhibition by BVM; however, we observed general processing defects and a slight delay in viral replication in Jurkat T cells associated with the PIR mutations, even in the absence of compound. When combined, most BVM resistance and PIR mutations acted additively to impair viral replication, particularly in the presence of BVM. The BVM-resistant mutant SP1-A1V was an exception, as it supported robust replication in the context of either wild-type (WT) or PIR PR, even at high BVM concentrations. Significantly, the emergence of BVM resistance was delayed in the context of the PIR PR, and the SP1-A1V mutation was acquired most frequently with either WT or PIR PR. These results suggest that resistance to BVM is less likely to emerge in patients who have failed PIs than in patients who are PI naive. We predict that the SP1-A1V substitution is the most likely to emerge in vivo, as this mutant replicates robustly independently of PR mutations or BVM. These findings offer insights into the effect of PIR mutations on the evolution of BVM resistance in PI-experienced patients.
Article: Safety and pharmacokinetics of Bevirimat (PA-457), a novel inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus maturation, in healthy volunteers.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bevirimat (BVM; formerly known as PA-457) is a novel inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) maturation that is being developed for the treatment of HIV infection. The pharmacokinetics of this agent in healthy male volunteers were studied in a randomized, double-blind study in which the participants received single oral doses of placebo (n = 8) or escalating doses of BVM at 25, 50, 100, or 250 mg (n = 6 per dose); escalation was performed only after the pharmacokinetics and safety of the preceding dose had been evaluated. Plasma was collected over 480 h after dosing and urine was collected over 48 h after dosing for determination of the values of pharmacokinetic parameters. BVM was well absorbed after oral administration, with peak plasma concentrations being achieved 1 to 3 h after dosing. The half-life was 60 to 80 h. The exposure assessed by determination of the peak concentration and the area under the concentration-time curve was dose proportional. Single oral doses of BVM were well tolerated: there were no dose-limiting toxicities, and no serious adverse events were reported. These findings suggest that that BVM offers a favorable pharmacokinetic profile, with predictable pharmacokinetics following the oral administration of single doses. The long half-life of BVM may facilitate once-daily dosing.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 10/2007; 51(9):3063-6. · 4.84 Impact Factor
Article: The effect of posterior lobe extract, adrenalin, and pilocarpine on the response of the thyroid gland to the thyreoactivator hormone of the anterior lobe of the hypophysis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The studies reported here were directed toward ascertaining in a variety of organisms whether or not any of the three lobes of the pituitary gland affected thyroid activity. We documented a thyroid stimulating action of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland extract that was not shared in by either the intermediate or posterior lobes. Pilocarpine first depressed the stimulating action of the pituitary extract but, after the fifth injection, it accentuated the response of the thyroid gland to the pituitary extract.Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science 04/1997; 32(4):374-91. · 2.43 Impact Factor
Article: Evidence for a functional interaction between the V1/V2 and C4 domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein gp120.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The domains of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein that are required for envelope function have been partially characterized. Little is known, however, about the nature of the interactions between these domains. To identify regions of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein that are involved in interactions necessary for proper envelope function, we constructed a series of 14 envelope recombinants between the env genes of two HIV-1 isolates. The envelope chimeras were examined for their ability to induce syncytia, to be proteolytically processed, and to function during a spreading viral infection. Our results demonstrate that the exchange between the two isolates of the first and second hypervariable regions (V1/V2) of gp120 results in defects in envelope glycoprotein processing, syncytium formation, and infectivity. Long-term passage of cultures infected with virus bearing a V1/V2 chimeric envelope glycoprotein leads to the emergence of a revertant virus with replication characteristics comparable to those of the wild type. Analysis of the revertant indicated that an Ile-->Met change in the C4 region of gp120 (between hypervariable regions V4 and V5) is responsible for the revertant phenotype. This single amino acid change restores infectivity without significantly affecting gp160 processing, CD4 binding, or the levels of virion-associated gp120. While the Ile-->Met change in C4 greatly enhances the fusogenic potential of the V1/V2 chimeric envelope glycoprotein, it has a detrimental effect on syncytium formation when analyzed in the context of the wild-type envelope. These results suggest that an interaction required for proper envelope glycoprotein function occurs between the V1/V2 and C4 regions of gp120.Journal of Virology 04/1994; 68(4):2503-12. · 5.40 Impact Factor