Deficiency in endogenous modulation of prolonged heat pain in patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Temporomandibular Disorder
ABSTRACT Females with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Temporomandibular Disorder (TMD) are characterized by enhanced sensitivity to experimental pain. One possible explanation for this observation is deficiencies in pain modulation systems such as Diffuse Noxious Inhibitory Control (DNIC). In a few studies that used brief stimuli, chronic pain patients demonstrate reduced DNIC. The purpose of this study was to compare sensitivity to prolonged heat pain and the efficacy of DNIC in controls to IBS and TMD patients. Heat pain (experimental stimulus; 44.0-49.0 degrees C), which was applied to left palm, was continuously rated during three 30-s trials across three separate testing sessions under the following conditions: without a conditioning stimulus; during concurrent immersion of the right foot in a 23.0 degrees C (control); and during noxious cold immersion in a (DNIC; 8.0-16.0 degrees C) water bath. Compared to controls, IBS and TMD patients reported an increased sensitivity to heat pain and failed to demonstrate pain inhibition due to DNIC. Controls showed a significant reduction in pain during the DNIC session. These findings support the idea that chronic pain patients are not only more pain sensitive but also demonstrate reduced pain inhibition by pain, possibly because of dysfunction of endogenous pain inhibition systems.
SourceAvailable from: Dong-Yuan Cao[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Temporomandibular disorder and irritable bowel syndrome are comorbid functional chronic pain disorders of unknown etiology that are triggered/exacerbated by stress. Here we present baseline phenotypic characterization of a novel animal model to gain insight into the underlying mechanisms that contribute to such comorbid pain conditions. In this model, chronic visceral hypersensitivity, a defining symptom of irritable bowel syndrome, is dependent on 3 factors: estradiol, existing chronic somatic pain, and stress. In ovariectomized rats, estradiol replacement followed by craniofacial muscle injury and stress induced visceral hypersensitivity that persisted for months. Omission of any 1 factor resulted in a transient (1 week) visceral hypersensitivity from stress alone or no hypersensitivity (no inflammation or estradiol). Maintenance of visceral hypersensitivity was estradiol dependent, resolving when estradiol replacement ceased. Referred cutaneous hypersensitivity was concurrent with visceral hypersensitivity. Increased spinal Fos expression suggests induction of central sensitization. These data demonstrate the development and maintenance of visceral hypersensitivity in estradiol-replaced animals following distal somatic injury and stress that mimics some characteristics reported in patients with temporomandibular disorder and comorbid irritable bowel syndrome. This new animal model is a powerful experimental tool that can be employed to gain further mechanistic insight into overlapping pain conditions. PERSPECTIVE: The majority of patients with temporomandibular disorder report symptoms consistent with irritable bowel syndrome. Stress and female prevalence are common to both conditions. In a new experimental paradigm in ovariectomized rats with estradiol replacement, masseter inflammation followed by stress induces visceral hypersensitivity that persists for months, modeling these comorbid pain conditions.Journal of Pain 09/2014; 15(9):956. DOI:10.1016/j.jpain.2014.06.008 · 4.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pain facilitation as well as pain inhibition might be present in chronic pain patients. A decreased efficacy of pain inhibition can be measured by conditioned pain modulation (CPM). The use of the CPM paradigm in scientific research has boosted over the last few years and is recognized for its high clinical relevance in chronic pain patients. It is, however, unclear whether the presence of pain and possible modulations of pain influences the efficacy of endogenous pain inhibition, measured by CPM. This systematic literature study aimed to provide an overview of the effects of clinical pain and experimental pain induction or pain reduction on CPM in adults.Pain Practice 11/2014; DOI:10.1111/papr.12241 · 2.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Visceral pain is a global term used to describe pain originating from the internal organs, which is distinct from somatic pain. It is a hallmark of functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable-bowel syndrome (IBS). Currently, the treatment strategies targeting visceral pain are unsatisfactory, with development of novel therapeutics hindered by a lack of detailed knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. Stress has long been implicated in the pathophysiology of visceral pain in both preclinical and clinical studies. Here, we discuss the complex etiology of visceral pain reviewing our current understanding in the context of the role of stress, gender, gut microbiota alterations, and immune functioning. Furthermore, we review the role of glutamate, GABA, and epigenetic mechanisms as possible therapeutic strategies for the treatment of visceral pain for which there is an unmet medical need. Moreover, we discuss the most widely described rodent models used to model visceral pain in the preclinical setting. The theory behind, and application of, animal models is key for both the understanding of underlying mechanisms and design of future therapeutic interventions. Taken together, it is apparent that stress-induced visceral pain and its psychiatric comorbidities, as typified by IBS, has a multifaceted etiology. Moreover, treatment strategies still lag far behind when compared to other pain modalities. The development of novel, effective, and specific therapeutics for the treatment of visceral pain has never been more pertinent.Frontiers in Psychiatry 02/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00015