Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) play important roles in the pathogenesis of various tumors, but ATF2 expression/activation and the relationship with STAT3 activation have not yet been investigated in extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD).
To investigate potential contributions of ATF2 and STAT3 pathways to the pathogenesis of EMPD.
Paraffin-embedded 45 EMPD specimens (43 primary EMPD and 2 nodal metastases) were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for ATF2, phosphorylated (p)-ATF2 and p-STAT3.
P-ATF2 expression in advanced EMPD, non-invasive EMPD and normal skin (NS) controls were 97.9 +/- 1.8%, 82.0 +/- 23.4% and 45.8 +/- 3.2%, respectively, and p-STAT3 expression in advanced EMPD, non-invasive EMPD and NS were 97.0 +/- 2.9%, 83.2 +/- 23.3% and 50.1 +/- 6.7%, respectively. P-ATF2 and p-STAT3 expressions in EMPD were significantly higher than those in NS, indicating a possible contribution of these pathways to the tumor development. P-ATF2 and p-STAT3 expressions in advanced EMPD were significantly higher than those in non-invasive EMPD, possibly indicating that these pathways might also contribute to the tumor invasion and/or metastasis. We also found an exceptionally high positive correlation between p-ATF2 and p-STAT3 expressions in EMPD.
P-ATF2 and p-STAT3 are concordantly overexpressed in EMPD and their expressions may possibly be associated with the tumor stage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cooperation among transcription factors is central for their ability to execute specific transcriptional programmes. The AP1 complex exemplifies a network of transcription factors that function in unison under normal circumstances and during the course of tumour development and progression. This Perspective summarizes our current understanding of the changes in members of the AP1 complex and the role of ATF2 as part of this complex in tumorigenesis.
Nature Reviews Cancer 04/2010; 10(1):65-76. DOI:10.1038/nrc2681 · 37.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurotrophin (NT) systems appear to play important roles in the pathogenesis of several tumors, but their expression in extramammary Paget's disease (EPD) has not been investigated.
Thirty-four paraffin-embedded EPD specimens (32 primary EPD and 2 metastatic to lymph nodes) were subject to immunohistochemical staining for nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), NT3, NT4, their high-affinity receptors (TrkA, TrkB and TrkC) and the common low-affinity receptor, p75 NT receptor (p75).
All 34 EPD specimens, including 2 metastatic to lymph nodes, showed cytoplasmic overexpression of NGF, BDNF, TrkA and TrkB. The expression (% positive cells) of NGF, BDNF, NT3, NT4, TrkA and TrkB (81.6 ± 14.9, 86.0 ± 10.4, 89.6 ± 14.9, 87.8 ± 17.9, 83 ± 14.4 and 86.2 ± 11.7%) in EPD was significantly higher than in normal skin (21.6 ± 6.5, 27.6 ± 4.5, 19.7 ± 10.1, 8.2 ± 10.0, 25.0 ± 5.3 and 25.4 ± 6.4%), and the expression of these factors in invasive EPD was significantly higher than in noninvasive EPD. Interestingly, Paget cells were negative for p75 and TrkC in all the 34 EPD specimens.
These results suggest that overexpression of NGF, BDNF and their high-affinity receptors (TrkA and TrkB) might play a role in the pathogenesis of EPD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway seems to play important roles in the pathogenesis of several tumors, but its significance in extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) has not been investigated yet. The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential contribution of the JNK-associated molecules, such as hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1), mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-related protein kinase kinase kinase1 (MEKK1), transforming growth factor-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1), and phosphomitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (p-MKK4) to the development of EMPD. Thirty-five paraffin-embedded EMPD specimens were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for HPK1, MEKK1, TAK1, and p-MKK4. All the 35 EMPD, including 13 dermal invasive EMPD and 2 lymph node metastasis, showed cytoplasmic overexpression of HPK1, MEKK1, and p-MKK4. The expression (%positive cells) of HPK1, MEKK1, and p-MKK4 in EMPD (92.3% ± 8.6%, 92.9% ± 8.6%, and 92.7% ± 7.4%, respectively) were significantly higher than in normal eccrine sweat gland cells (51.6% ± 10.4%, 44.7% ± 11.7%, 0% ± 0%). In addition, the expression of HPK1-, MEKK1-, and p-MKK4 in invasive EMPD was significantly higher than in noninvasive EMPD. Meanwhile, the expression of TAK1 was basically low and no significantly different between EMPD and normal controls. In conclusion, these results indicate that JNK pathway may play a role in the pathogenesis of EMPD.
The American Journal of dermatopathology 09/2011; 33(7):681-6. DOI:10.1097/DAD.0b013e318215c3fb · 1.39 Impact Factor
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