Concordant overexpression of phosphorylated ATF2 and STAT3 in extramammary Paget's disease.
ABSTRACT Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) play important roles in the pathogenesis of various tumors, but ATF2 expression/activation and the relationship with STAT3 activation have not yet been investigated in extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD).
To investigate potential contributions of ATF2 and STAT3 pathways to the pathogenesis of EMPD.
Paraffin-embedded 45 EMPD specimens (43 primary EMPD and 2 nodal metastases) were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for ATF2, phosphorylated (p)-ATF2 and p-STAT3.
P-ATF2 expression in advanced EMPD, non-invasive EMPD and normal skin (NS) controls were 97.9 +/- 1.8%, 82.0 +/- 23.4% and 45.8 +/- 3.2%, respectively, and p-STAT3 expression in advanced EMPD, non-invasive EMPD and NS were 97.0 +/- 2.9%, 83.2 +/- 23.3% and 50.1 +/- 6.7%, respectively. P-ATF2 and p-STAT3 expressions in EMPD were significantly higher than those in NS, indicating a possible contribution of these pathways to the tumor development. P-ATF2 and p-STAT3 expressions in advanced EMPD were significantly higher than those in non-invasive EMPD, possibly indicating that these pathways might also contribute to the tumor invasion and/or metastasis. We also found an exceptionally high positive correlation between p-ATF2 and p-STAT3 expressions in EMPD.
P-ATF2 and p-STAT3 are concordantly overexpressed in EMPD and their expressions may possibly be associated with the tumor stage.
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ABSTRACT: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma represents a tumor type with extremely poor prognosis. High apoptosis resistance and a strong invasive and early metastatic potential contribute to its highly malignant phenotype. Here we identified the death receptor adaptor molecule TRAF2 as a key player in pancreatic cancer pathophysiology. Using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis we found TRAF2 overexpressed in 34 of 36 pancreatic tumor samples as well as in pancreatic tumor cell lines resistant to CD95-mediated apoptosis. The high TRAF2 protein level was not related to chromosomal changes, as monitored by FISH analysis. Instead, the NF-kappaB- and MEK-signaling pathways were involved. Introduction of a TRAF2 expression vector in CD95-sensitive Colo357 cells resulted in (i) resistance to CD95-induced apoptosis; (ii) increased constitutive NF-kappaB and AP-1 activity; and (iii) higher basal secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), and IL-8, leading to increased invasiveness. High apoptosis resistance and uPA secretion could be reverted by TRAF2-specific siRNA. Stimulation of TRAF2-overexpressing cells with CD95 ligand led to induction of NF-kappaB and AP-1, enhanced IL-8- and uPA-secretion, and a further increased invasiveness. Thus, TRAF2 overexpression does not only block apoptosis induction by CD95 but also converts this death receptor into a mediator of invasiveness.The FASEB Journal 05/2005; 19(6):620-2. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Overexpression of the growth factor receptor ErbB-2/Her2/Neu has been implicated in the development of non-small-cell lung cancer. We have reported that the transformation of human lung epithelial cells by c-erbB-2 also requires an active ErbB-1 (EGF receptor) and the autocrine production of its ligand, TGF-alpha. In this report, we demonstrate that STAT 3 is constitutively activated in these cells by the TGF-alpha-stimulated ErbB-1/-2 heterodimer complex. STAT 3 activation was confirmed by mobility shift assays and nuclear localization. ErbB-1 was required, but not sufficient for the TGF-alpha-induced activation of STATs. Inhibition of ErbB-2 kinase activity by tyrphostin AG825 prevented the constitutive activation of STAT 3 in the TGF-alpha-producing, ErbB-1 expressing cell line. Our results demonstrate a requirement for ErbB-2 kinase activity to establish constitutive STAT 3 activation resulting from an autocrine ErbB-1/ TGF-alpha loop. Int. J. Cancer 83:564-570, 1999. Published 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.International Journal of Cancer 12/1999; 83(4):564-70. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The 92 kDa type IV collagenase (MMP-9), which degrades type IV collagen, has been implicated in tissue remodeling. The purpose of the current study was to determine the role of Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK)- and extracellular signal-regulated kinase- (ERK)-dependent signaling cascades in the regulation of MMP-9 expression. Towards this end, we first determined the transcriptional requirements for MMP-9 promoter activity in a cell line (UM-SCC-1) which is an avid secretor of this collagenase. Transfection of these cells with a CAT reporter driven by progressive 5' deleted fragments of the MMP-9 promoter indicated the requirement of a region spanning -144 to -73 for optimal promoter activity. DNase I footprinting revealed a protected region of the promoter spanning nucleotides -91 to -68 and containing a consensus AP-1 motif at -79. Mutation of this AP-1 motif practically abolished the activity of the MMP-9 promoter-driven CAT reporter. Mobility shift assays indicated c-Fos and Jun-D bound to this motif and transfection of the cells with a mutated c-Jun, which quenches the function of endogenous Jun and Fos proteins, decreased MMP-9 promoter activity by 80%. UM-SCC-1 cells contained a constitutively activated JNK and the expression of a kinase-deficient JNK1 reduced the activity of a CAT reporter driven either by the MMP-9 promoter or by three tandem AP-1 repeats upstream of a thymidine kinase minimal promoter. Conditioned medium collected from UM-SCC-1 cells transfected with the dominant negative JNK1 expression vector diminished 92 kDa gelatinolysis. Similarly, interfering with MEKK, which lies upstream of JNK1, using a dominant negative expression vector reduced MMP-9 promoter activity over the same concentration range which repressed the AP-1-thymidine kinase CAT reporter construct. UM-SCC-1 cells also contained a constitutively activated ERK1. MMP-9 expression, as determined by CAT assays and by zymography, was reduced by the co-expression of a kinase-deficient ERK1. Interfering with MEK1, which is an upstream activator of ERK1, either with PD 098059, which prevents the activation of MEK1, or with a dominant negative expression construct, reduced 92 kDa gelatinolysis and MMP-9 promoter activity respectively. c-Raf-1 is an upstream activator of MEK1 and a kinase-deficient c-Raf-1 expression construct decreased the activity of a promoter driven by either the MMP-9 promoter or three tandem AP-1 repeats. Conversely, treatment of UM-SCC-1 cells with PMA, which activates c-Raf-1, increased 92 kDa gelatinolysis. These data suggest that MMP-9 expression in UM-SCC-1 cells, is regulated by JNK- and ERK-dependent signaling pathways.Oncogene 04/1997; 14(12):1481-93. · 7.36 Impact Factor