QEEG Guided Neurofeedback Therapy in Personality Disorders: 13 Case Studies

Living Health Center for Research and Education, Gazeteciler Mah. Saglam Fikir Sokak. No: 17 Esentepe, Sisli, Istanbul 34387, Turkey.
Clinical EEG and neuroscience: official journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS) (Impact Factor: 2.22). 02/2009; 40(1):5-10. DOI: 10.1177/155005940904000107
Source: PubMed


According to DSM-IV, personality disorder constitutes a class only when personality traits are inflexible and maladaptive and cause either significant functional impairment or subjective distress. Classical treatment of choice for personality disorders has been psychotherapy and/or psychopharmacotherapy. Our study is to determine if subjects with antisocial personality disorders will benefit from quantitative EEG (qEEG) guided neurofeedback treatment. Thirteen subjects (9 male, 4 female) ranged in age from 19 to 48 years. All the subjects were free of medications and illicit drugs. We excluded subjects with other mental disorders by clinical assessment. Psychotherapy or psychopharmacotherapy or any other treatment model was not introduced to any of the subjects during or after neurofeedback treatment. For the subject who did not respond to neurofeedback, training was applied with 38 sessions of LORETA neurofeedback training without success. Evaluation measures included qEEG analysis with Nx Link data base, MMPI, T.O.V.A tests and SA-45 questionaries at baseline, and at the end of neurofeedback treatment. Lexicor qEEG signals were sampled at 128 Hz with 30 minutes-neurofeedback sessions completed between 80-120 sessions depending on the case, by Biolex neurofeedback system. At baseline and after every 20 sessions, patients were recorded with webcam during the interview. Twelve out of 13 subjects who received 80-120 sessions of neurofeedback training showed significant improvement based on SA-45 questionaries, MMPI, T.O.V.A. and qEEG/Nx Link data base (Neurometric analysis) results, and interviewing by parent/family members. Neurofeedback can change the view of psychiatrists and psychologists in the future regarding the treatment of personality disorders. This study provides the first evidence for positive effects of neurofeedback treatment in antisocial personality disorders. Further study with controls is warranted.

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Available from: Tanju Surmeli, Jan 14, 2015
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    • "Sürmeli and colleagues reported on Down syndrome (Sürmeli & Ertem, 2007), personality disorders (Sürmeli & Ertem, 2009), intellectual disability (mental retardation; Sürmeli & Ertem, 2010), obsessive-compulsive disorder (Sürmeli & Ertem, 2011), schizophrenia (Sürmeli et al., 2012), and dementia (Sürmeli et al., 2015). Notable in this collection of work are conditions previously not known to respond to NF, such as personality disorders, intellectual disability, Down syndrome, and schizophrenia. "
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    ABSTRACT: While there are literature reviews and meta-analytic coverage of neurofeedback (NF) studies that focus on traditional amplitude NF and slow cortical potential NF, the same is not true for quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG)-guided NF (qNF). To that end, this is a literature review of several qNF research articles. Generally, most are found in clinical settings, address a wide variety of symptoms and diagnoses, use clinical assessments as outcome measures, employ individualized NF protocols based on qEEG findings, and define efficacy in terms of improvement on pre-post outcome measures. However, few report pre-post qEEG metrics as outcome measures. Suggestions for future research are presented.
    NeuroRegulation 08/2015; 2(3):149-155. DOI:10.15540/nr.2.3.149
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    • "Respondents are also unsure (37.1%) whether BCIs as assistive technology would lead to behaviors uncharacteristic of the user’s identity and comment that even if it would change personal identity, this might not be necessarily negative. For example, neurofeedback has been hypothesized to reduce the symptoms of autism and anti-personality disorder [49, 59] and may change a person’s identity in fundamental but desirable ways. "
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    Neuroethics 12/2013; 6(3):1-38. DOI:10.1007/s12152-011-9132-6 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    • "Smith and Sams (2005) showed improvements in attention and behavior in a group of juvenile offenders, and a study in a Boys Totem Town project with seven juvenile felons (Martin & Johnson, 2005) improvements were noted on a variety of measures. Most recently, Surmeli and Ertem (2009) presented a case series of 13 patients who received from 80 to 100 neurofeedback treatment sessions guided by QEEG findings. Outcomes were measured with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, a test of attention, QEEG results, and interviews with family members. "
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    ABSTRACT: Written to educate both professionals and the general public, this article provides an update and overview of the field of neurofeedback (EEG biofeedback). The process of assessment and neurofeedback training is explained. Then, areas in which neurofeedback is being used as a treatment are identified and a survey of research findings is presented. Potential risks, side effects, and adverse reactions are cited and guidelines provided for selecting a legitimately qualified practitioner.
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