EST databases and web tools for EST projects.
ABSTRACT This chapter outlines key considerations for constructing and implementing an EST database. Instead of showing the technological details step by step, emphasis is put on the design of an EST database suited to the specific needs of EST projects and how to choose the most suitable tools. Using TBestDB as an example, we illustrate the essential factors to be considered for database construction and the steps for data population and annotation. This process employs technologies such as PostgreSQL, Perl, and PHP to build the database and interface, and tools such as AutoFACT for data processing and annotation. We discuss these in comparison to other available technologies and tools, and explain the reasons for our choices.
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ABSTRACT: Resolving the evolutionary relationships among Fungi remains challenging because of their highly variable evolutionary rates, and lack of a close phylogenetic outgroup. Nucleariida, an enigmatic group of amoeboids, have been proposed to emerge close to the fungal-metazoan divergence and might fulfill this role. Yet, published phylogenies with up to five genes are without compelling statistical support, and genome-level data should be used to resolve this question with confidence. Our analyses with nuclear (118 proteins) and mitochondrial (13 proteins) data now robustly associate Nucleariida and Fungi as neighbors, an assemblage that we term 'Holomycota'. With Nucleariida as an outgroup, we revisit unresolved deep fungal relationships. Our phylogenomic analysis provides significant support for the paraphyly of the traditional taxon Zygomycota, and contradicts a recent proposal to include Mortierella in a phylum Mucoromycotina. We further question the introduction of separate phyla for Glomeromycota and Blastocladiomycota, whose phylogenetic positions relative to other phyla remain unresolved even with genome-level datasets. Our results motivate broad sampling of additional genome sequences from these phyla.BMC Evolutionary Biology 11/2009; 9:272. DOI:10.1186/1471-2148-9-272 · 3.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Arguably, the most bizarre mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is that of the euglenozoan eukaryote Diplonema papillatum. The genome consists of numerous small circular chromosomes none of which appears to encode a complete gene. For instance, the cox1 coding sequence is spread out over nine different chromosomes in non-overlapping pieces (modules), which are transcribed separately and joined to a contiguous mRNA by trans-splicing. Here, we examine how many genes are encoded by Diplonema mtDNA and whether all are fragmented and their transcripts trans-spliced. Module identification is challenging due to the sequence divergence of Diplonema mitochondrial genes. By employing most sensitive protein profile search algorithms and comparing genomic with cDNA sequence, we recognize a total of 11 typical mitochondrial genes. The 10 protein-coding genes are systematically chopped up into three to 12 modules of 60-350 bp length. The corresponding mRNAs are all trans-spliced. Identification of ribosomal RNAs is most difficult. So far, we only detect the 3'-module of the large subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA); it does not trans-splice with other pieces. The small subunit rRNA gene remains elusive. Our results open new intriguing questions about the biochemistry and evolution of mitochondrial trans-splicing in Diplonema.Nucleic Acids Research 10/2010; 39(3):979-88. DOI:10.1093/nar/gkq883 · 9.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) often display reduced size and deviant secondary structure, and sometimes are fragmented, as are their corresponding genes. Here we report a mitochondrial large subunit rRNA (mt-LSU rRNA) with unprecedented features. In the protist Diplonema, the rnl gene is split into two pieces (modules 1 and 2, 534- and 352-nt long) that are encoded by distinct mitochondrial chromosomes, yet the rRNA is continuous. To reconstruct the post-transcriptional maturation pathway of this rRNA, we have catalogued transcript intermediates by deep RNA sequencing and RT-PCR. Gene modules are transcribed separately. Subsequently, transcripts are end-processed, the module-1 transcript is polyuridylated and the module-2 transcript is polyadenylated. The two modules are joined via trans-splicing that retains at the junction ∼26 uridines, resulting in an extent of insertion RNA editing not observed before in any system. The A-tail of trans-spliced molecules is shorter than that of mono-module 2, and completely absent from mitoribosome-associated mt-LSU rRNA. We also characterize putative antisense transcripts. Antisense-mono-modules corroborate bi-directional transcription of chromosomes. Antisense-mt-LSU rRNA, if functional, has the potential of guiding concomitantly trans-splicing and editing of this rRNA. Together, these findings open a window on the investigation of complex regulatory networks that orchestrate multiple and biochemically diverse post-transcriptional events.Nucleic Acids Research 11/2013; 42(4). DOI:10.1093/nar/gkt1152 · 9.11 Impact Factor