A randomized trial to increase physical activity in breast cancer survivors.
ABSTRACT Interventions to increase physical activity among breast cancer survivors are needed to improve health and quality of life and possibly to reduce the risk of disease recurrence and early mortality. Therefore, we report the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of a pilot randomized trial designed to increase physical activity in sedentary breast cancer survivors receiving hormone therapy.
Forty-one sedentary women on estrogen receptor modulators or aromatase inhibitors for stage I, II, or IIIA breast cancer were randomly assigned to receive a 12-wk multidisciplinary physical activity behavior change intervention or usual care.
Recruitment was 34%, intervention adherence was 99%, and complete follow-up data were obtained on 93%. Most participants (93%) were white with mean age of 53 +/- 9 yr. Differences favoring the intervention group were noted for accelerometer physical activity counts (mean difference = 72,103; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 25,383-119,000; effect size (d) = 1.02; P = 0.004), aerobic fitness (mean difference = 2.9; 95% CI = -0.1 to 5.8; d = 0.64; P = 0.058), back/leg muscle strength (mean difference = 12.3; 95% CI = 0.4-15.9; d = 0.81; P = 0.017), waist-to-hip ratio (mean difference = -0.05; 95% CI = -0.01 to -0.08; d = -0.77; P = 0.018), and social well-being (mean difference = 2.0; 95% CI = 0.3-3.8; d = 0.76; P = 0.03). However, the intervention group also reported a greater increase in joint stiffness (mean difference = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.1-2.2; d = 0.70; P = 0.04).
A behavior change intervention for breast cancer survivors based on the social cognitive theory is feasible and results in potentially meaningful improvements in physical activity and selected health outcomes. Confirmation in a larger study is warranted.
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ABSTRACT: Adverse health outcomes are often seen in breast cancer survivors due to prolonged treatment with side effects such as loss of energy and lack of physical strength. Physical activity (PA) has been proposed as an adequate intervention for women with breast cancer. Therefore, this review summarizes the effects of physical activity on breast cancer survivors after diagnosis. We searched electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar for articles published between January 1980 and May 2013. We included a variety of studies such as randomized controlled trials, pilot studies, and clinical trials. We reviewed these studies for three major outcomes: changes in breast cancer mortality, physiological functions, and metabolic biomarkers. Of 127 studies, 33 studies were selected as eligible studies. These studies included physical activities of varying type, duration, frequency, and intensity (e.g., aerobic and resistance training) and examined changes in three major outcomes among breast cancer survivors. Many of the studies suggest that breast cancer survivors benefit from engaging in physical activity, but some studies were limited in their ability to provide adequate evidence due to relatively small sample sizes, short intervention periods, or high attrition. Based on epidemiological evidence, recent studies demonstrated that those breast cancer survivors who engaged in physical activity significantly lowered their risk of breast cancer mortality and improved their physiological and immune functions. Some studies demonstrated changes in metabolic biomarkers such as insulin and insulin-like growth factors. However, further investigation is required to support these findings because these results are not consistent.Journal of cancer prevention. 09/2013; 18(3):193-200.
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ABSTRACT: Background. The goal of this pilot study was to determine the magnitude and direction of intervention effect sizes for inflammatory-related serum markers and relevant health outcomes among breast cancer survivors (BCSs) receiving a physical activity behavior change intervention compared with usual care. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial enrolled 28 stage I, II, or IIIA BCSs who were post-primary treatment and not regular exercisers. Participants were assigned to either a 3-month physical activity behavior change intervention group (ING) or usual care group (UCG). Intervention included supervised aerobic (150 weekly minutes, moderate-intensity) and resistance (2 sessions per week) exercise that gradually shifted to home-based exercise. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and 3 months. RESULTS: Cardiorespiratory fitness significantly improved in the ING versus the UCG (between-group difference = 3.8 mL/kg/min; d = 1.1; P = .015). Self-reported sleep latency was significantly reduced in the ING versus the UCG (between group difference = -0.5; d = -1.2; P = .02) as was serum leptin (between-group difference = -9.0 ng/mL; d = -1.0; P = .031). Small to medium nonsignificant negative effect sizes were noted for interleukin (IL)-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and ratios of IL-6 to IL-10, IL-8 to IL-10, and TNF-α to IL-10, whereas nonsignificant positive effect sizes were noted for IL-6 and high-molecular-weight adiponectin. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity behavior change interventions in BCSs can achieve large effect size changes for several health outcomes. Although effect sizes for inflammatory markers were often small and not significant, changes were in the hypothesized direction for all except IL-6 and IL-10.Integrative Cancer Therapies 07/2012; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction. Many cancer survivors suffer from a combination of disease- and treatment-related morbidities and complaints after primary treatment. There is a growing evidence base for the effectiveness of monodimensional rehabilitation interventions; in practice, however, patients often participate in multidimensional programs. This study systematically reviews evidence regarding effectiveness of multidimensional rehabilitation programs for cancer survivors and cost-effectiveness of cancer rehabilitation in general.Methods. The published literature was systematically reviewed. Data were extracted using standardized forms and were summarized narratively.Results. Sixteen effectiveness and six cost-effectiveness studies were included. Multidimensional rehabilitation programs were found to be effective, but not more effective than monodimensional interventions, and not on all outcome measures. Effect sizes for quality of life were in the range of -0.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.45-0.20) to 0.98 (95% CI, 0.69-1.29). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ranged from -€16,976, indicating cost savings, to €11,057 per quality-adjusted life year.Conclusions. The evidence for multidimensional interventions and the economic impact of rehabilitation studies is scarce and dominated by breast cancer studies. Studies published so far report statistically significant benefits for multidimensional interventions over usual care, most notably for the outcomes fatigue and physical functioning. An additional benefit of multidimensional over monodimensional rehabilitation was not found, but this was also sparsely reported on. Available economic evaluations assessed very different rehabilitation interventions. Yet, despite low comparability, all showed favorable cost-effectiveness ratios. Future studies should focus their designs on the comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of multidimensional programs.The Oncologist 09/2012; · 4.10 Impact Factor