Analysis of nonfatal dog bites in children.
ABSTRACT Dog bites are a significant public health problem among children. The purpose of this study was to examine the hospital incidence, hospital charges, and characteristics of dog bite injuries among children by age group and hospitalization status who were treated at our health care system to guide prevention programs and policies.
An electronic hospital database identified all patients younger than 18 years who were treated for dog bites from 1999 to 2006. Demographics, injury information, hospital admission status, length of stay, hospital charges, and payer source were collected. A further review of the narrative part of the inpatient electronic database was examined to identify owner of the dog, type of dog, and circumstances surrounding the incident.
During 8 years, 1,347 children younger than 18 years were treated for dog bites. The majority were treated and released from the emergency department (91%). Of the 66 children (4.9%) requiring inpatient admission, the median length of stay was 2 days. Victims were frequently male (56.9%) and <8 years (55.2%). Children younger than 5 years represented 34% of all dog bite victims, but 50% of all children requiring hospitalization. Thirty-seven percent of all children admitted to the hospital were bitten by a family dog. The cost of direct medical care during the study was $2.15 million.
Dog bite visits comprised 1.5% of all pediatric injuries treated in our hospital system during the study period. The majority (91%) of all dog bite visits were treated and released from the emergency department. Injuries to the head/neck region increased the odds of requiring 23 hour observation (OR, 1.95) and age less than 5 years increased the odds of being admitted as an inpatient (OR, 3.3).
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To examine dog bites among American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) children visiting Indian Health Service and tribal health facilities. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively analyzed hospitalizations and outpatient visits with a diagnosis of dog bite between 2001 and 2008 in AI/AN children aged <20 years. Rates of dog bite hospitalizations and outpatient visits were estimated by age group, sex, region, and number and location of open wounds using Indian Health Service data. Analyses of hospitalizations for the general US population aged <20 years used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. RESULTS: The average annual dog bite hospitalization rate was higher among AI/AN children in Alaska (6.1/100 000 population) and the Southwest region (5.3/100 000) compared with the general US child population (3.1/100 000; 95% CI, 2.9-3.3/100 000). The average annual outpatient visit rate in AI/AN children was highest in the Alaska (596.4/100 000), Southwest (540.0/100 000), and Northern Plains West (537.6/100 000) regions. The hospitalization rate was highest in both AI/AN and US males aged <5 years, and outpatient visit rates were highest in AI/AN males aged 5-9 years. Open wounds diagnoses were most commonly seen on the head, neck, and face in hospitalized children (45.5% of open wounds in AI/AN children, 59.3% in US children; SE, 1.0%) and on the leg in AI/AN outpatients (35.6%). CONCLUSION: Dog bites represent a significant public health threat in AI/AN children in the Alaska, the Southwest, and Northern Plains West regions of the US. Enhanced animal control and education efforts should reduce dog bite injuries and associated problems with pets and stray dogs, such as emerging infectious diseases.The Journal of pediatrics 01/2013; 162(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.11.087 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Facial dog bite injuries pose a significant public health problem. Seventy-five consecutive patients (45 males, 30 females) treated solely by plastic surgery service for facial dog bite injuries at a Level I trauma center in the Denver Metro area between 2006 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The following information were recorded: breed, relationship of patient to dog, location and number of wounds, the duration between injury and surgical repair and dog bite incident, type of repair, and antibiotic prophylaxis. Primary end points measured were wound infection, the need for revision surgery, and patient satisfaction. Ninety-eight wounds in the head and neck region were repaired (46 children; mean age, 6.8 years) and (29 adults; mean age, 47.3 years). Twelve different breeds were identified. There was no significant association between the type of dog breed and the number of bite injuries. The duration between injury and repair ranged from 4 hours to 72 hours (mean [SD], 13.7 [10.9] hours). The majority of bite wounds (76 of 98) involved the cheek, lip, nose, and chin region. Direct repair was the most common surgical approach (60 of 98 wounds) (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant association between wounds needing reconstruction versus direct repair according to dog breed (p = 0.25). Ten wounds required grafting. Twenty-five wounds were managed by one-stage or two-stage flaps. Only three patients (3.06 %) underwent replantation/revascularization of amputated partial lip (n = 2) and of cheek (n = 1). There was one postoperative infection. Data from five-point Likert scale were available for fifty-two patients. Forty patients were satisfied (5) with the outcome, while five patients were somewhat satisfied (4), and seven were neutral. Availability of the plastic surgery service at a Level I trauma center is vital for the optimal treatment of facial dog bite injuries. Direct repair and reconstruction of facial dog bite injuries at the earliest opportunity resulted in good outcomes as evidenced by the satisfaction survey data and low complication rate. Therapeutic study, level V. Epidemiologic study, level III.05/2014; 76(5):1294-300. DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000185
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ABSTRACT: The aim of research was to assess the behaviour of schoolchildren with pets and their knowledge about influence of pets to health. Methods. 300 children of 5-9 grades in secondary schools were included in the survey. There were 160 boys and 140 girls of them. Children were asked to voluntary answer anonymous questionnaire. Time for answering was not limited. For data analysis Fisher’s, chi-square and Mantel-Hansel tests were used. The results were considered as statistically significant if p value was < 0.05. Results. 67 % of schoolchildren have any pet. The most popular pet is cat. 67 % of children sleep with their pets, 49 % – kiss them, more than one third of children fondle homeless animals. Even 64 % of children sustained injuries from their pets. 50 % of children indicated, that pets may cause allergy, 45 % – may infect with rabies, 26 % – may infect with helminths, 20 % – may infect with skin diseases, and 17 % – may cause alimentary diseases. Conclusions. Behaviour of schoolchildren with pets is risky, and their knowledge about influence of pets to health is not adequate.