Analysis of Nonfatal Dog Bites in Children

Injury Free Coalition for Kids, Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.
The Journal of trauma (Impact Factor: 2.96). 03/2009; 66(3 Suppl):S17-22. DOI: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3181937925
Source: PubMed


Dog bites are a significant public health problem among children. The purpose of this study was to examine the hospital incidence, hospital charges, and characteristics of dog bite injuries among children by age group and hospitalization status who were treated at our health care system to guide prevention programs and policies.
An electronic hospital database identified all patients younger than 18 years who were treated for dog bites from 1999 to 2006. Demographics, injury information, hospital admission status, length of stay, hospital charges, and payer source were collected. A further review of the narrative part of the inpatient electronic database was examined to identify owner of the dog, type of dog, and circumstances surrounding the incident.
During 8 years, 1,347 children younger than 18 years were treated for dog bites. The majority were treated and released from the emergency department (91%). Of the 66 children (4.9%) requiring inpatient admission, the median length of stay was 2 days. Victims were frequently male (56.9%) and <8 years (55.2%). Children younger than 5 years represented 34% of all dog bite victims, but 50% of all children requiring hospitalization. Thirty-seven percent of all children admitted to the hospital were bitten by a family dog. The cost of direct medical care during the study was $2.15 million.
Dog bite visits comprised 1.5% of all pediatric injuries treated in our hospital system during the study period. The majority (91%) of all dog bite visits were treated and released from the emergency department. Injuries to the head/neck region increased the odds of requiring 23 hour observation (OR, 1.95) and age less than 5 years increased the odds of being admitted as an inpatient (OR, 3.3).

1 Follower
16 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: For coarse acquisition of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) signals, a search of the possible code phases is required. In cases such as signal reacquisition, where a priori information is available, the serial search may be abandoned in favor of an expanding search. In this paper, an expanding-search algorithm is presented and compared to the expanding-sweep algorithms which have been treated in the literature. Performance results for the serial-search and the expanding-search algorithms are given. A discussion of the optimality of the serial-search and the expanding-search algorithms is presented. Performance comparisons of the serial search and the expanding search are made for different a priori code phase probability density functions (pdfs) and the results are discussed. A technique for determining when the expanding search is an optimal search algorithm is developed and applied to the performance curves shown previously. The results indicate that the expanding search provides a quantifiable improvement over the serial search when the pdf is somewhat peaked. The results also indicate that in many cases the expanding search may be a more effective search algorithm than the more common expanding sweep.
    Wireless Personal Communications 06/1997; 5(1):75-88. DOI:10.1023/A:1008879105632 · 0.65 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Animal and human bite wounds can lead to serious infections. The organisms recovered generally originate from the biter's oral cavity and the victim's skin flora. Anaerobes were isolated from more than two thirds of human and animal bite infections. Streptococcus pyogenes is often recovered in human bites, Pasteurella multocida in animal bites, Eikenella corrodens in animal and human, Capnocytophaga spp, Neisseria weaveri, Weeksella zoohelcum, Neisseria canis, Staphylococcus intermedius, nonoxidizer-1, and eugonic oxidizer-2 in dog, Flavobacterium group in pig, and Actinobacillus spp in horse and sheep bites. Vibrio spp, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Pseudomonas spp can cause infections in bites associated with marine settings. In addition to local wound infection, complications include lymphangitis, local abscess, septic arthritis, tenosynovitis, and osteomyelitis. Uncommon complications include endocarditis, meningitis, brain abscess, and sepsis with disseminated intravascular coagulation especially in immunocompromised individuals. Wound management includes administering local care and using proper antimicrobial therapy when needed.
    Current Infectious Disease Reports 10/2009; 11(5):389-95. DOI:10.1007/s11908-009-0055-x · 1.68 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Maiming and death due to dog bites are uncommon but preventable tragedies. We postulated that patients admitted to a level I trauma center with dog bites would have severe injuries and that the gravest injuries would be those caused by pit bulls. We reviewed the medical records of patients admitted to our level I trauma center with dog bites during a 15-year period. We determined the demographic characteristics of the patients, their outcomes, and the breed and characteristics of the dogs that caused the injuries. Our Trauma and Emergency Surgery Services treated 228 patients with dog bite injuries; for 82 of those patients, the breed of dog involved was recorded (29 were injured by pit bulls). Compared with attacks by other breeds of dogs, attacks by pit bulls were associated with a higher median Injury Severity Scale score (4 vs. 1; P = 0.002), a higher risk of an admission Glasgow Coma Scale score of 8 or lower (17.2% vs. 0%; P = 0.006), higher median hospital charges ($10,500 vs. $7200; P = 0.003), and a higher risk of death (10.3% vs. 0%; P = 0.041). Attacks by pit bulls are associated with higher morbidity rates, higher hospital charges, and a higher risk of death than are attacks by other breeds of dogs. Strict regulation of pit bulls may substantially reduce the US mortality rates related to dog bites.
    Annals of surgery 04/2011; 253(4):791-7. DOI:10.1097/SLA.0b013e318211cd68 · 8.33 Impact Factor
Show more