Brain accumulation of dasatinib is restricted by P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) and can be enhanced by elacridar treatment.
ABSTRACT Imatinib, a BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a substrate of the efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1) and ABCG2 (breast cancer resistance protein), and its brain accumulation is restricted by both transporters. For dasatinib, an inhibitor of SCR/BCR-ABL kinases, in vivo interactions with P-gp and ABCG2 are not fully established yet.
We used Abcb1a/1b(-/-), Abcg2(-/-), and Abcb1a/1b;Abcg2(-/-) mice to establish the roles of P-gp and ABCG2 in the pharmacokinetics and brain accumulation of dasatinib.
We found that oral uptake of dasatinib is limited by P-gp. Furthermore, relative brain accumulation, 6 hours after administration, was not affected by Abcg2 deficiency, but absence of P-gp resulted in a 3.6-fold increase after oral and 4.8-fold higher accumulation after i.p. administration. Abcb1a/1b;Abcg2(-/-) mice had the most pronounced increase in relative brain accumulation, which was 13.2-fold higher after oral and 22.7-fold increased after i.p. administration. Moreover, coadministration to wild-type mice of dasatinib with the dual P-gp and ABCG2 inhibitor elacridar resulted in a similar dasatinib brain accumulation as observed for Abcb1a/1b;Abcg2(-/-) mice.
Brain accumulation of dasatinib is primarily restricted by P-gp, but Abcg2 can partly take over this protective function at the blood-brain barrier. Consequently, when both transporters are absent or inhibited, brain uptake of dasatinib is highly increased. These findings might be clinically relevant for patients with central nervous system Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia, as coadministration of an inhibitor of P-gp and ABCG2 with dasatinib might result in better therapeutic responses in these patients.
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ABSTRACT: ATP-binding cassette transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) have been shown to work in concert to restrict brain penetration of several tyrosine kinase inhibitors. It has been reported that P-gp is dominant in limiting transport of many dual P-gp/BCRP substrates across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This study investigated the influence of P-gp and BCRP on the central nervous system (CNS) penetration of sorafenib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor currently being evaluated in clinical trials for glioma. In vitro studies showed that BCRP has a high affinity for sorafenib. Sorafenib inhibited P-gp, but did not seem to be a P-gp substrate in vitro. CNS distribution studies showed that transport of sorafenib to the brain was restricted because of active efflux at the BBB. The brain-to-plasma equilibrium-distribution coefficient (area under the concentration-time profiles for plasma/area under the concentration-time profiles for brain) was 0.06 in wild-type mice. Steady-state brain-to-plasma concentration ratio of sorafenib was approximately 0.36 ± 0.056 in the Bcrp1(-/-) mice, 0.11 ± 0.021 in the Mdr1a/b(-/-) mice, and 0.91 ± 0.29 in the Mdr1a/b(-/-)Bcrp1(-/-) mice compared with 0.094 ± 0.007 in the wild-type mice. Sorafenib brain-to-plasma ratios increased on coadministration of the dual P-gp/BCRP inhibitor elacridar such that the ratio in wild-type mice (0.76 ± 0.24), Bcrp1(-/-) mice (1.03 ± 0.33), Mdr1a/b(-/-) mice (1.3 ± 0.29), and Mdr1a/b(-/-)Bcrp1(-/-) mice (0.73 ± 0.35) were not significantly different. This study shows that BCRP and P-gp together restrict the brain distribution of sorafenib with BCRP playing a dominant role in the efflux of sorafenib at the BBB. These findings are clinically relevant to chemotherapy in glioma if restricted drug delivery to the invasive tumor cells results in decreased efficacy.Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 10/2010; 336(1):223-33. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ponatinib is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potent activity against BCR-ABL with mutations, including T315I, and also against fms-like tyrosine kinase 3. We tested interactions between ponatinib at pharmacologically relevant concentrations of 50 to 200 nmol/L and the MDR-associated ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2. Ponatinib enhanced uptake of substrates of ABCG2 and ABCB1, but not ABCC1, in cells overexpressing these proteins, with a greater effect on ABCG2 than on ABCB1. Ponatinib potently inhibited [(125)I]-IAAP binding to ABCG2 and ABCB1, indicating binding to their drug substrate sites, with IC(50) values of 0.04 and 0.63 μmol/L, respectively. Ponatinib stimulated ABCG2 ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner and stimulated ABCB1 ATPase activity at low concentrations, consistent with it being a substrate of both proteins at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The ponatinib IC(50) values of BCR-ABL-expressing K562 cells transfected with ABCB1 and ABCG2 were approximately the same as and 2-fold higher than that of K562, respectively, consistent with ponatinib being a substrate of both proteins, but inhibiting its own transport, and resistance was also attenuated to a small degree by ponatinib-induced downregulation of ABCB1 and ABCG2 cell-surface expression on resistant K562 cells. Ponatinib at pharmacologically relevant concentrations produced synergistic cytotoxicity with ABCB1 and ABCG2 substrate chemotherapy drugs and enhanced apoptosis induced by these drugs, including daunorubicin, mitoxantrone, topotecan, and flavopiridol, in cells overexpressing these transport proteins. Combinations of ponatinib and chemotherapy drugs warrant further testing. Mol Cancer Ther; 11(9); 2033-44. ©2012 AACR.Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 07/2012; 11(9):2033-44. · 5.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the bioavailability and disposition of elacridar (GF120918; N-(4-(2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)ethyl)phenyl)-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide) in plasma and brain after various routes of administration in the mouse. Elacridar is a potent inhibitor of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein and has been used to examine the influence of these efflux transporters on drug distribution to brain. Friend leukemia virus strain B mice were administered 100 mg/kg elacridar either orally or intraperitoneally. The absolute bioavailability of elacridar after oral or intraperitoneal dosing was determined with respect to an intravenous dose of 2.5 mg/kg. At these doses, the absolute bioavailability was 0.22 for oral administration and 0.01 for intraperitoneal administration. The terminal half-life of elacridar was approximately 4 h after intraperitoneal and intravenous administration and nearly 20 h after oral dosing. The brain-to-plasma partition coefficient (Kp,brain) of elacridar increased as plasma exposure increased, suggesting saturation of the efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier. The Kp,brain after intravenous, intraperitoneal, and oral dosing was 0.82, 0.43, and 4.31, respectively. The low aqueous solubility and high lipophilicity of elacridar result in poor oral absorption, most likely dissolution-rate-limited. These results illustrate the importance of the route of administration and the resultant plasma exposure in achieving effective plasma and brain concentrations of elacridar and can be used as a guide for future studies involving elacridar administration and in developing formulation strategies to overcome the poor absorption.Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 05/2012; 40(8):1612-9. · 3.74 Impact Factor