An ultrasonogram reporting system for thyroid nodules stratifying cancer risk for clinical management.
ABSTRACT There is a high prevalence of thyroid nodules on ultrasonographic (US) examination. However, most of them are benign. US criteria may help to decide cost-effective management.
Our objective was to develop a standardized US characterization and reporting data system of thyroid lesions for clinical management: the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS).
This was a prospective study using the TIRADS, which is based on the concepts of the Breast Imaging Reporting Data System of the American College of Radiology.
A correlation of the US findings and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) results in 1959 lesions biopsied under US guidance and studied histologically during an 8-yr period was divided into three stages. In the first stage, 10 US patterns were defined. In the second stage, four TIRADS groups were defined according to risk. The percentages of malignancy defined in the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System were followed: TIRADS 2 (0% malignancy), TIRADS 3 (<5% malignancy), TIRADS 4 (5-80% malignancy), and TIRADS 5 (>80% malignancy).
The TIRADS classification was evaluated at the third stage of the study in a sample of 1097 nodules (benign: 703; follicular lesions: 238; and carcinoma: 156). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were 88, 49, 49, 88, and 94%, respectively. The ratio of benign to malignant or follicular FNAB results currently is 1.8.
The TIRADS has allowed us to improve patient management and cost-effectiveness, avoiding unnecessary FNAB. In addition, we have established standard codes to be used both for radiologists and endocrinologists.
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Over the past years, the incidence of thyroid cancer has surged not only in Germany but also in other countries of the Western hemisphere. This surge was first and foremost due to an increase of prognostically favorable ("low risk") papillary thyroid microcarcinomas, for which limited surgical procedures are often sufficient without loss of oncological benefit. These developments called for an update of the previous practice guideline to detail the surgical treatment options that are available for the various disease entities and tumor stages. METHODS: The present German Association of Endocrine Surgeons practice guideline was developed on the basis of clinical evidence considering current national and international treatment recommendations through a formal expert consensus process in collaboration with the German Societies of General and Visceral Surgery, Endocrinology, Nuclear Medicine, Pathology, Radiooncology, Oncological Hematology, and a German thyroid cancer patient support organization. RESULTS: The practice guideline for the surgical management of malignant thyroid tumors includes recommendations regarding preoperative workup; classification of locoregional nodes and terminology of surgical procedures; frequency, clinical, and histopathological features of occult and clinically apparent papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, undifferentiated, and sporadic and hereditary medullary thyroid cancers, thyroid lymphoma and thyroid metastases from primaries outside the thyroid gland; extent of thyroidectomy; extent of lymph node dissection; aerodigestive tract resection; postoperative follow-up and surgery for recurrence and distant metastases. CONCLUSION: These evidence-based recommendations for surgical therapy reflect various "treatment corridors" that are best discussed within multidisciplinary teams and the patient considering tumor type, stage, progression, and inherent surgical risk.Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 03/2013; · 1.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ultrasonography (US) and the new applications US elastography (USE) and contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) are used in the screening of thyroid nodules, for which fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the best single diagnostic test. The aim of the study was to compare the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and accuracy of the four examinations in nodules with cytological and histological diagnoses. The study used data from US, FNAB, USE (elasticity (ELX 2/1) index), and CEUS (Peak index and time to peak (TTP) index) evaluated in 73 thyroid nodules in 63 consecutive patients likely to undergo surgery. Cytological-histological correlation was available for 38 nodules. No correlation emerged between nodule size and cytological results. A significant (P=0.03) positive correlation between cumulative US findings and cytological results was found. In addition, significant correlations between cumulative US findings and cytology (P=0.02) and between cumulative US findings and histology (P<0.0001) were found. US showed the best specificity and PPV, and FNAB the best sensitivity. There was no significant difference in the ELX 2/1 index, Peak index, or TTP index among nodules subdivided according to cytological scores. No significant correlation was found between ELX 2/1 index, Peak index, and TTP index, on the one hand, and nodule size, US cumulative findings, cytology, and histology on the other hand. The sensitivity of the ELX 2/1 index was high, but its specificity was very low. The accuracy and PPV of USE were lower than those of the other procedures. Only the correlation between Peak index and cumulative US findings reached a value close to significance. Our ultimate aim is to minimise unnecessary thyroidectomy. US and FNAB continue to play a central diagnostic role. The use of a US score showed high specificity and PPV. The specificity of FNAB was low in this selected series because of the numbers of indeterminate cytological responses. USE and CEUS are innovative techniques that need to be standardized. The ELX 2/1 index, Peak index, and TTP index seem to be unrelated to histology. The best statistical data on USE and CEUS concerned their sensitivity and PPV, respectively. At present, USE and CEUS are too time-consuming and of limited utility in selecting patients for surgery.Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 03/2013; 14(3):195-206. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The standard management in patients with thyroid nodules is to assess the risk of malignancy, based on cytological examination. On the other hand, there are thyroid patterns of ultrasound (US) image, associated with an increased risk of malignancy.The aim of our study was to create a diagnostic algorithm that would employ both data from US examination (expressed by a total score, according to our scoring system) and FNAB results, classified according to Bethesda system (The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology - TBSRTC categories). MATERIAL AND METHODS: 100 thyroid cancer foci (94 papillary carcinomas, 4 medullary carcinomas, 2 undifferentiated carcinomas) and 100 benign focal lesions were selected during postoperative histopathological examination of thyroid glands excised during surgery from 111 patients. The corresponding US images of each lesion -- performed in the course of preoperative diagnostics -- were evaluated for the presence of seven (7) different features in US image, suggesting a malignant character of lesion, viz. vascularity, i.e., the increased central intranodular blood flows, microcalcifications, "taller-than-wide" orientation, solid composition, hypoechogenicity, irregular margin and either absence of peripheral halo or the presence of outer shell of uneven thickness, surrounding the lesion. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, negative predictive values and odds ratios for each US feature were calculated. RESULTS: In US image of the analyzed cancer foci, we obtained the following values of odds ratio for each of the above mentioned features suggesting malignancy: "taller-than-wide" orientation - odds ratio - 301.0, microcalcifications - 24.67, increased intranodular vascularity - 20.44, hypoechogenicity - 18.61, irregular margins - 7.81, absence of halo - 5.88, and solid composition - 4.16.Taking into account our own experience and the present data, in juxtaposition with the opinions of other authors, we propose a division of US features into 3 groups of different prognostic importance, expressed by a total score calculated based on our scoring system. Accordingly, microcalcifications, "taller-than-wide" orientation, the increased intranodular vascularity, and hypoechogenicity constitute one group - each of the features in this group is awarded 1 point. In turn, the characteristics of minor prognostic importance, such as irregular margin, absence of halo, solid composition, and large size (a diameter longer than 3.0 cm) - are associated with the granting 0.5 points each. The most important prognostic features -- a rapid growth (enlargement) of nodules/focal lesions and a presence of pathologically altered lymph nodes are associated with the granting 3 points for each.Our scoring system can be applied in order to better assessment of thyroid US patterns in whole. In patients with a total score ranging from 0 < 4 points there is US pattern of a low risk of malignancy, with >= 4 < 7 points - intermediate risk, and in patients with a score >= 7 points -- a high risk in question. CONCLUSION: Complementary use of our scoring system and FNAB TBSRTC categories can help to make optimal clinical decisions as regards the selection of treatment strategy.Thyroid Research 04/2013; 6(1):6.