Type IV collagens are the most abundant proteins in basement membranes. Distinct genes encode each of six isoforms, alpha1(IV) through alpha6(IV), which assemble into one of three characteristic heterotrimers. Disease-causing mutations in each of the six genes are identified in humans or mice and frequently include diverse ocular pathogenesis that encompass common congenital and progressive blinding diseases, such as optic nerve hypoplasia, glaucoma, and retinal degeneration. Understanding where and when collagen IV molecules are expressed is important because it defines limits for the location and timing of primary pathogenesis. Although localization of collagen IV isoforms in developed human eyes is known, the spatial and temporal distribution of type IV collagens throughout ocular development has not been determined in humans or in mice. Here, we use isoform-specific monoclonal antibodies to systematically reveal the localization of all six collagen IV isoforms in developing mouse eyes. We found that alpha1(IV) and alpha2(IV) always co-localized and were ubiquitously expressed throughout development. alpha3(IV) and alpha4(IV) also always co-localized but in a much more spatially and temporally specific manner than alpha1(IV) and alpha2(IV). alpha5(IV) co-localized both with alpha3(IV)/alpha4(IV), and with alpha6(IV), consistent with alpha5(IV) involvement in two distinct heterotrimers. alpha5(IV) was present in all basement membranes except those of the vasculature. alpha6(IV) was not detected in vasculature or in Bruch's membrane, indicating that alpha5(IV) in Bruch's membrane is part of the alpha3alpha4alpha5 heterotrimer. This comprehensive analysis defines the spatial and temporal distribution of type IV collagen isoforms in the developing eye, and will contribute to understanding the mechanisms underlying collagen IV-related ocular diseases that collectively lead to blindness in millions of people worldwide.
"Col4a6 310 e Expressed in the early mouse lens development ( Bai et al . , 2009 ) Cp 2120 e Expressed and secreted by lens epithelial cells in culture ( Harned et al . , 2006 ) Crim1 1047 e Mouse mutants exhibit smaller lens ( Pennisi et al . , 2007 )"
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The discovery of cytosolic RNA granule (RG) component proteins associated with human cataract has initiated investigations on post-transcriptional mechanisms of gene expression control in the lens. Application of established mouse lens epithelial cell lines (LECs) can provide rapid insights on RG function in lens cells, especially because mouse mutants in several RG components are not available. However, although these LECs represent potential reagents for such analyses, they are uncharacterized for lens gene expression or RG formation. Therefore, a detailed molecular and cellular characterization of three permanent mouse LECs 17EM15, 21EM15 and αTN4 is performed in this study. Comparative analysis between microarray gene expression datasets on LEC 21EM15 and iSyTE lens tissue demonstrates that 30% of top 200 iSyTE identified lens-enriched genes are expressed in these cells. Majority of these candidates are independently validated to either have lens expression, function or linkage to cataract. Moreover, analysis of microarray data with genes described in Cat-Map, an online database of cataract associated genes and loci, demonstrates that 131 genes linked to cataract loci are expressed in 21EM15 cells. Furthermore, gene expression in LECs is compared to isolated lens epithelium or fiber cells by qRT-PCR and by comparative analyses with publically available epithelium or fiber-specific microarray and RNA-seq (sequencing) datasets. Expression of select candidate genes was validated by regular and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Expression of lens epithelium-enriched genes Foxe3, Pax6, Anxa4 and Mcm4 is up-regulated in LEC lines, compared to isolated lens fiber cells. Moreover, similar to isolated lens epithelium, all three LECs exhibit down-regulation of fiber cell-expressed genes Crybb1, Mip and Prox1 when compared to fiber cells. These data indicate that the LEC lines exhibit greater similarity to lens epithelium than to fiber cells. Compared to non-lens cell line NIH3T3, LECs exhibit significantly enriched expression of transcription factors with important function in the lens, namely Pax6, Foxe3 and Prox1. In addition to these genes, all three LECs also express key lens- and cataract-associated genes, namely Dkk3, Epha2, Hsf4, Jag1, Mab21l1, Meis1, Pknox1, Pou2f1, Sfrp1, Sparc, Tdrd7 and Trpm3. Additionally, 21EM15 microarrays indicate expression of Chmp4b, Cryab and Tcfap2a among others important genes. Immunostaining with makers for Processing bodies (P-bodies) and Stress granules (SGs) demonstrates that these classes of RGs are robustly expressed in all three LECs. Moreover, under conditions of stress, 17EM15 and αTN4 exhibit significantly higher numbers of P-bodies and SGs compared to NIH3T3 cells. In sum, these data indicate that mouse LECs 21EM15, 17EM15 and αTN4 express key lens or cataract genes, are similar to lens epithelium than fiber cells, and exhibit high levels of P-bodies and SGs, indicating their suitability for investigating gene expression control and RG function in lens-derived cells.
Experimental Eye Research 12/2014; 131. DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2014.12.011 · 2.71 Impact Factor
"Basement membranes determine the polarity of cells and organisation of tissues. Mutations in collagen type 4 result in retinal dysgenesis or degeneration (Bai et al., 2009). Thus, a non-polarised RPE could have partially explained the photoreceptor phenotype. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ER-to-Golgi transport of proteins destined for the extracellular space or intracellular compartments depends on the COPII vesicle coat and is constitutive in all translationally active cells. Nevertheless, there is emerging evidence that this process is regulated on a cell- and tissue-specific basis, which means that components of the COPII coat will be of differential importance to certain cell types. The COPII coat consists of an inner layer, Sec23/24 and an outer shell, Sec13/31. We have shown previously that knock-down of Sec13 results in concomitant loss of Sec31. In zebrafish and cultured human cells this leads to impaired trafficking of large cargo, namely procollagens, and is causative for defects in craniofacial and gut development. It is now widely accepted that the outer COPII coat is key to the architecture and stability of ER export vesicles containing large, unusual cargo proteins. Here, we investigate zebrafish eye development following Sec13 depletion. We find that photoreceptors degenerate or fail to develop from the onset. Impaired collagen trafficking from the retinal pigment epithelium and defects in overall retinal lamination also seen in Sec13-depleted zebrafish might have been caused by increased apoptosis and reduced topical proliferation in the retina. Our data show that the outer layer of the COPII coat is also necessary for the transport of large amounts of cargo proteins, in this case rhodopsin, rather than just large cargo as previously thought.
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Biology Open 03/2013; 2(3):256-66. DOI:10.1242/bio.20133251 · 2.42 Impact Factor
"The major collagen IV chains detected were α5 and α6, inferring that (α5α5α6[IV]) isoform is present in the embryonic chick ILM. The data are well supported by a recent study in mouse showing that the dominant collagen IV in embryonic mouse ILM is (α5α5α6[IV] (Bai et al., 2009). All the three proteoglycans identified by MS, perlecan, agrin and collagen XVIII, have been previously detected in the ILM by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry (Halfter et al., 2000; Candiello et al., 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Basement membranes (BMs) are physiologically insoluble extracellular matrix sheets present in all multicellular organisms. They play an important role in providing mechanical strength to tissues and regulating cell behavior. Proteomic analysis of BM proteins is challenged by their high molecular weights and extensive post-translational modifications. Here, we describe the direct analysis of an in vivo BM system using a mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomics approach. Retinal BMs were isolated from embryonic chick eyes. The BM macromolecules were deglycosylated and separated by low percentage gradient SDS PAGE, in-gel digested and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. This identified over 27 extracellular matrix proteins in the retinal BM. A semi-quantitative measure of protein abundance distinguished, nidogens-1 and -2, laminin subunits α1, α5, β2, and γ1, agrin, collagen XVIII, perlecan, FRAS1 and FREM2 as the most abundant BM protein components. Laminin subunits α3, β1, γ2, γ3 and collagen IV subunits α5 and α6 were minor constituents. To examine binding interactions that contribute to the stability of the retinal BM, we applied the LC-MS/MS based approach to detect potential BM complexes from the vitreous. Affinity-captured nidogen- and heparin-binding proteins from the vitreous contained >10 and >200 proteins respectively. Comparison of these protein lists with the retinal BM proteome reveals that glycosaminoglycan and nidogen binding interactions play a central role in the internal structure and formation of the retinal BM. In addition, we studied the biomechanical qualities of the retinal BM before and after deglycosylation using atomic force microscopy. These results show that the glycosaminoglycan side chains of the proteoglycans play a dominant role in regulating the thickness and elasticity of the BMs by binding water to the extracellular matrix. To our knowledge, this is the first large-scale investigation of an in vivo BM system using MS-based proteomics.
Matrix biology: journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology 07/2010; 29(6):471-83. DOI:10.1016/j.matbio.2010.04.002 · 5.07 Impact Factor
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