Safety and efficacy of nevirapine- and efavirenz-based antiretroviral treatment in adults treated for TB-HIV co-infection in Botswana.

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (Impact Factor: 2.76). 04/2009; 13(3):360-6.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The safety and efficacy of nevirapine (NVP) and efavirenz (EFV) based highly active antiretroviral treatment (ART) with concurrent anti-tuberculosis treatment in sub-Saharan Africa has not been well established.
We performed a retrospective study comparing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected adults exposed and not exposed to tuberculosis (TB) treatment with similar baseline HIV-1 RNA levels who were started on ART as part of Botswana's ART Programme. ART regimens, HIV-1 RNA, CD4+ cell count, and liver function tests were reviewed for 12 months following ART initiation.
Among 155 patients on ART only and 155 exposed to TB treatment, there was no difference in virologic or immunologic response throughout the first year of ART. Furthermore, there remained no differences in virologic or immunologic outcomes when NVP and EFV groups were stratified by TB treatment exposure status. While more hepatotoxic events occurred in the group exposed to TB treatment than in those not exposed (9% vs. 3%, P = 0.05), there was no difference between patients treated with NVP and those treated with EFV.
Patients co-infected with HIV and TB in Botswana can be treated effectively with either NVP- or EFV-based ART and TB treatment. As hepatotoxic events were more common in the group exposed to TB treatment, liver function tests should be monitored closely.

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    ABSTRACT: To assess efavirenz plasma concentrations and their association with treatment efficacy and tolerance of efavirenz 600 mg daily in HIV-tuberculosis co-infected patients. HIV-infected adults with CD4+ T cell count ≤200/mm3 received standard 6-month tuberculosis treatment and antiretroviral therapy including a daily-dose of 600 mg of efavirenz, irrespective of their body weight. Mid-dose blood samples were drawn both on tuberculosis treatment (week +2 and week +6 after antiretroviral therapy initiation, and week 22 of follow-up) and off tuberculosis treatment (week 50 of follow-up). Considered therapeutic range was 1,000 to 4,000 ng/mL. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the association between efavirenz concentration below 1,000 ng/mL and virological failure. Linear regression was used to test the association between efavirenz exposure and CD4+ T cell gain. Severe side effects potentially related to efavirenz were described and their association with efavirenz exposure was tested by multivariate analysis. Efavirenz plasma concentrations were available in 540 patients. Median [interquartile range] efavirenz concentrations were 2,674 ng/mL [1,690-4,533], 2,667 ng/mL [1,753-4,494] and 2,799 ng/mL [1,804-4,744] at week +2, week +6, week 22, respectively, and 2,766 ng/mL [1,941-3,976] at week 50. Efavirenz concentrations were lower at week 50 (off rifampicin) compared to week 22 (on rifampicin) (p<0.001). Late attendance to study visit and low hemoglobinemia were the only factors associated with an increased risk of efavirenz concentration below 1,000 ng/mL. Efavirenz concentration below 1,000 ng/mL was not associated with treatment failure. Efavirenz concentration above 4,000 ng/mL was associated with higher risk of central nervous system side effects (p<0.001) and of hepatotoxicity (p<0.001). Body weight and tuberculosis treatment were not associated with low efavirenz concentrations or treatment failure, supporting the 600 mg daily-dose of efavirenz in HIV-tuberculosis co-infected patients. High efavirenz concentrations were related to a higher risk of central nervous system side effects and hepatotoxicity. NCT01300481.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e90350. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Overlapping toxicity between drugs used for HIV and TB could complicate the management of HIV/TB coinfected patients, particularly those carrying multiple opportunistic infections. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes and adverse drug events in HIV patients managed with first-line antiretroviral and first-line anti-TB drugs. Methods. This is a retrospective study utilizing medical dossiers from single-HIV infected and HIV/TB coinfected patients already initiated on ART. Predictors of outcomes included changes in CD4 cells/mm(3), body weight, physical improvement, death rate, and adverse drug reactions. Results. Records from 60 HIV patients and 60 HIV/TB patients aged between 20 and 58 years showed that all clinical indicators of effectiveness were better in single-HIV infected than in HIV/TB coinfected patients: higher CD4 cell counts, better physical improvement, and low prevalence of adverse drug events. The most frequently prescribed regimen was TDF/3TC/EFV+RHZE. The mortality rate was 20% in HIV/TB patients compared to 8.3% in the single-HIV group. Conclusion. Treatment regimens applied are efficient in controlling the progression of the infection. However, attention should be paid to adjust dosing when combining nonnucleoside antiretrovirals (EFV and NVR) with anti-TB drugs to minimize the risk of death by drug intoxication.
    Journal of Tropical Medicine 01/2014; 2014:904957.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the morbidity and mortality of patients infected with HIV. Standard ART includes either nevirapine or efavirenz, however the efficacy of these drugs is limited in patients receiving rifampin treatment for tuberculosis (TB). We compared the efficacy and safety of nevirapine- and efavirenz-based ART regimens in patients co-infected with both HIV and TB through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods A comprehensive search of the literature was carried out to identify clinical trials comparing the efficacy and safety of nevirapine- and efavirenz-based ART regimens in HIV-associated TB. Eligible clinical studies included at least one primary or secondary event; the primary event was virological response and secondary events were TB treatment outcomes, mortality, and safety profile. Results This meta-analysis compared five randomized clinical trials and four retrospective clinical trials. Both included patients co-infected with HIV and TB; 833 received nevirapine, while 1424 received efavirenz. The proportion of patients achieving a virological response by the end of the follow-up was higher in the efavirenz group: plasma viral load <400 copies/ml, risk ratio (RR) 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.17 (p = 0.004); plasma viral load < 50 copies/ml, RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.98–1.16 (p = 0.146). No significant differences were found in either mortality (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.44–1.13, p = 0.142) or TB treatment outcomes (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.96–1.06, p = 0.766). Due to adverse advents, nevirapine-based regimens significantly increased the risk of discontinuation of assigned ART (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.23–0.81, p = 0.009). Conclusions Although efavirenz-based ART was associated with more satisfactory virological outcomes, nevirapine-based ART could be considered an acceptable alternative for patients for whom efavirenz cannot be administered.
    International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 01/2014;

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