Molecular and clinical analyses of the gene encoding the collagen-binding adhesin of Streptococcus mutans.
ABSTRACT Streptococcus mutans is a known pathogen of dental caries and its major cell surface antigens have been widely investigated. Recently, an approximately 120 kDa Cnm protein with binding properties to type I collagen was identified, and its encoding gene (cnm) cloned and sequenced. In the present study, we sequenced cnm from 47 different clinical S. mutans strains and found that the nucleotide alignment of the collagen-binding domain was well conserved. We devised a PCR method for identifying the cnm gene, examined the prevalence of cnm-positive S. mutans strains in various mother-child groups, and assessed the significance of such strains for transmission and dental caries. The detection rate of cnm-positive strains was significantly lower in strains isolated from Japanese children in the 2000s (8.0 %) as compared to those isolated in the 1980s (15.8 %) (P<0.05). Furthermore, the presence of S. mutans possessing cnm in salivary specimens collected from 55 S. mutans-positive mother-child pairs was 40 and 32.7 % in the mothers and children, respectively. The frequency of cnm-positive children whose mothers were also positive was 72 %, which was significantly higher than that of cnm-positive children with negative mothers (P<0.0001, odds ratio 17.5). In addition, clinical parameters indicating dental caries were significantly increased in children with cnm-positive S. mutans in saliva (n=13), as compared to those with cnm-negative S. mutans (n=15) and S. mutans-negative children (n=20) (P<0.01). These results indicate that cnm-positive S. mutans strains are closely correlated with dental caries, while vertical transmission in cnm-positive mother-child pairs was also demonstrated.
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ABSTRACT: Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 is a surrogate microorganism used in place of pathogens for validation of thermal processing technologies and systems. We evaluated the safety of strain NRRL B-2354 based on its genomic and functional characteristics. The genome of E. faecium NRRL B-2354 was sequenced and found to comprise a 2,635,572 bp chromosome and a 214,319 bp mega-plasmid. A total of 2,639 coding sequences were identified, including 45 genes unique to this strain. Hierarchical clustering of the NRRL B-2354 genome with 126 other E. faecium genomes as well as pbp5 locus comparisons and Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) showed that the genotype of this strain is most similar to commensal, or community-associated, strains of this species. E. faecium NRRL B-2354 lacks antibiotic resistance genes, and both NRRL B-2354 and its clonal relative ATCC 8459 are sensitive to clinically-relevant antibiotics. This organism also lacks or contains non-functional copies of enterococcal virulence genes including acm, cyl, the ebp operon, esp, gelE, hyl, and IS16, and associated phenotypes. It does contain scm, sagA, efaA, and the pilA, although these genes were either not expressed or their roles in enterococcal virulence are not well understood. Compared with the clinical strains TX0082 and 1,231,502, E. faecium NRRL B-2354 was more resistant to acidic conditions (pH 2.4) and high temperatures (60°C) and was able to grow in 8% ethanol. These findings support the continued use of E. faecium NRRL B-2354 in thermal process validation of food products.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 01/2014; · 3.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of Streptococcus mutans serotype k, which was speculated that might be associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases, has been reported in adult cardiovascular surgery patients. There is no information about presence of serotype k in children with cardiac disease. The aim of this study was to determine the salivary prevalence of S. mutans serotype k in children with congenital heart disease. Salivary samples of 25 patients undergoing elective surgery for congenital heart defects with cardiopulmonary bypass and an age and gender matched control group of 25 healthy children were enrolled in the study. Species-specific 16SrRNA gene sequences were used for S. mutans and serotype-specific rgpF gene sequences were used for S. mutans serotype k determination in stimulated saliva samples. S. mutans was detected in 19 (76%) of the study and 15 (60%) of the control children. The difference was not shown to be statistically significant. Serotype k was determined from 3 (12%) of the study group, while it was not determined from the samples of the control group. Our results indicate that those children with congenital heart disease may possess S. mutans serotype k in oral cavity at a higher frequency as similar with the adult cardiac surgery patients.The Journal of clinical pediatric dentistry 01/2013; 38(2):175-8. · 0.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cnm, a collagen- and laminin-binding protein present in a subset of S. mutans strains, mediates binding to extracellular matrices (ECM), intracellular invasion and virulence in the Galleria mellonella model. Antibodies raised against Cnm were used to confirm expression and the cell surface localization of Cnm in the highly invasive OMZ175 strain. Sequence analysis identified two additional genes (cnaB and cbpA) encoding putative surface proteins immediately upstream of cnm. Inactivation of cnaB and cbpA in OMZ175, individually or in combination did not decrease the ability of this highly invasive and virulent strain to bind to different ECM proteins, invade human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC), or to kill G. mellonella. Similarly, expression of cnaB and cbpA in the cnm(-) strain UA159 revealed that these genes did not enhance Cnm-related phenotypes. However, integration of cnm in the chromosome of UA159 significantly increased its ability to bind to collagen and laminin, invade HCAEC, and kill G. mellonella. Moreover, the presence of antibodies against Cnm nearly abolished the ability of OMZ175 to bind to collagen and laminin and invade HCAECs, and significantly protected G. mellonella against OMZ175 infection. We concluded that neither CnaB nor CbpA are necessary for the expression of Cnm-related traits. We also provided definitive evidence that Cnm is an important virulence factor and a suitable target for the development of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies to combat invasive S. mutans strains. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Molecular oral microbiology. 09/2013;