Article

Influence of cyclin type and dose on mitotic entry and progression in the early Drosophila embryo

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
The Journal of Cell Biology (Impact Factor: 9.69). 04/2009; 184(5):639-46. DOI: 10.1083/jcb.200810012
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cyclins are key cell cycle regulators, yet few analyses test their role in timing the events that they regulate. We used RNA interference and real-time visualization in embryos to define the events regulated by each of the three mitotic cyclins of Drosophila melanogaster, CycA, CycB, and CycB3. Each individual and pairwise knockdown results in distinct mitotic phenotypes. For example, mitosis without metaphase occurs upon knockdown of CycA and CycB. To separate the role of cyclin levels from the influences of cyclin type, we knocked down two cyclins and reduced the gene dose of the one remaining cyclin. This reduction did not prolong interphase but instead interrupted mitotic progression. Mitotic prophase chromosomes formed, centrosomes divided, and nuclei exited mitosis without executing later events. This prompt but curtailed mitosis shows that accumulation of cyclin function does not directly time mitotic entry in these early embryonic cycles and that cyclin function can be sufficient for some mitotic events although inadequate for others.

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    ABSTRACT: The timing mechanism for mitotic progression is still poorly understood. The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), whose reversal upon chromosome alignment is thought to time anaphase [1-3], is functional during the rapid mitotic cycles of the Drosophila embryo; but its genetic inactivation had no consequence on the timing of the early mitoses. Mitotic cyclins-Cyclin A, Cyclin B, and Cyclin B3-influence mitotic progression and are degraded in a stereotyped sequence [4-11]. RNAi knockdown of Cyclins A and B resulted in a Cyclin B3-only mitosis in which anaphase initiated prior to chromosome alignment. Furthermore, in such a Cyclin B3-only mitosis, colchicine-induced SAC activation failed to block Cyclin B3 destruction, chromosome decondensation, or nuclear membrane re-assembly. Injection of Cyclin B proteins restored the ability of SAC to prevent Cyclin B3 destruction. Thus, SAC function depends on particular cyclin types. Changing Cyclin B3 levels showed that it accelerated progress to anaphase, even in the absence of SAC function. The impact of Cyclin B3 on anaphase initiation appeared to decline with developmental progress. Our results show that different cyclin types affect anaphase timing differently in the early embryonic divisions. The early-destroyed cyclins-Cyclins A and B-restrain anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) function, whereas the late-destroyed cyclin, Cyclin B3, stimulates function. We propose that the destruction schedule of cyclin types guides mitotic exit by affecting both Cdk1 and APC/C, whose activities change as each cyclin type is lost. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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