Article

Normal function of the yeast TOR pathway requires the type 2C protein phosphatase Ptc1.

Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Ed. V, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona, Spain.
Molecular and Cellular Biology (Impact Factor: 5.04). 04/2009; 29(10):2876-88. DOI: 10.1128/MCB.01740-08
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Yeast ptc1 mutants are rapamycin and caffeine sensitive, suggesting a functional connection between Ptc1 and the TOR pathway that is not shared by most members of the type 2C phosphatase family. Genome-wide profiling revealed that the ptc1 mutation largely attenuates the transcriptional response to rapamycin. The lack of Ptc1 significantly prevents the nuclear translocation of Gln3 and Msn2 transcription factors to the nucleus, as well as the dephosphorylation of the Npr1 kinase, in response to rapamycin. This could explain the observed decrease in both the basal and rapamycin-induced expression of several genes subjected to nitrogen catabolite repression (GAT1, MEP1, and GLN1) and stress response element (STRE)-driven promoters. Interestingly, this decrease is abolished in the absence of the Sit4 phosphatase. Epitasis analysis indicates that the mutation of SIT4 or TIP41, encoding a Tap42-interacting protein, abolishes the sensitivity of the ptc1 strain to rapamycin and caffeine. All of these results suggest that Ptc1 is required for normal TOR signaling, possibly by regulating a step upstream of Sit4 function. According to this hypothesis, we observe that the mutation of PTC1 drastically diminishes the rapamycin-induced interaction between Tap42 and Tip41, and this can be explained by lower-than-normal levels of Tip41 in ptc1 cells. Ptc1 is not necessary for the normal expression of the TIP41 gene; instead, its absence dramatically affects the stability of Tip41. The lack of Ptc1 partially abolishes the rapamycin-induced dephosphorylation of Tip41, which may further decrease Tap42 binding. Reduced Tip41 levels contribute to the ptc1 phenotypes, although additional Ptc1 targets must exist. All of these results provide the first evidence showing that a type 2C protein phosphatase is required for the normal functioning of the TOR pathway.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Antonio Casamayor, Jul 02, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
111 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2C) are monomeric enzymes and their activities require the presence of magnesium or manganese ions. There are seven PP2C genes, ScPTC1, ScPTC2, ScPTC3, ScPTC4, ScPTC5, ScPTC6 and ScPTC7, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PTC6 is highly conserved in pathogenic and nonpathogenic yeasts. In the current study we have demonstrated that the Candida albicans CaPTC6 gene could complement the functions of ScPTC6 in the rapamycin and caffeine sensitivities of S. cerevisiae cells, indicating that they are functional homologues. We have also demonstrated that the CaPTC6-encoded protein is a typical PP2C enzyme and that CaPtc6p is localized in the mitochondrion of yeast-form and hyphal cells. However, deletion of CaPTC6 neither affects cell and hyphal growth nor renders Candida cells sensitive to rapamycin and caffeine. Therefore, possibly with a functional redundancy to other mitochondrial phosphatases, CaPtc6p is likely to be involved in the regulation of a mitochondrial physiology.
    Yeast 01/2009; 27(4):197-206. DOI:10.1002/yea.1743 · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2C) are monomeric enzymes and their activities require the presence of magnesium or manganese ions. There are seven PP2C genes, named from PTC1 to PTC7, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the current study we identified the CaPTC4 gene in Candida albicans and demonstrated that the CaPtc4p protein is a typical PP2C enzyme, which is highly conserved in fungal species. Deletion of CaPTC4 renders Candida cells sensitive to sodium and potassium ions as well as to antifungal azole drugs. In addition, we have shown that CaPtc4p is localized in the mitochondrion, suggesting that CaPtc4p is likely to be involved in the regulation of a mitochondrial function related to ion homeostasis.
    Yeast 01/2009; 27(3):149-57. DOI:10.1002/yea.1739 · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) are monomeric protein serine/threonine phosphatases that play various roles in eukaryotic organisms. In this study, we characterized the PP2C encoded by FgPTC1 in Fusarium graminearum, the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight on wheat and barley. We found that deletion of FgPTC1 delays the mycelium growth of F. graminearum in response to lithium. Consistently, FgPTC1 complemented the function of ScPTC1 in lithium toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, we showed that deletion of FgPTC1 attenuated the virulence of F. graminearum on wheat. Therefore, FgPTC1 plays an important role in regulating the hyphal growth and virulence of F. graminearum.
    Molecular Plant Pathology 03/2010; 11(2):277-82. DOI:10.1111/j.1364-3703.2009.00598.x · 4.49 Impact Factor