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Post-transcriptional gene regulation by MAP kinases via AU-rich elements

Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology Division, Imperial College London, 1 Aspenlea Road, Hammersmith, London W6 8LH, UK.
Frontiers in Bioscience (Impact Factor: 4.25). 02/2009; 14:847-71.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Eukaryotic cells must continuously sense their environments, for example their attachment to extracellular matrix and proximity to other cells, differences in temperature or redox conditions, the presence of nutrients, growth factors, hormones, cytokines or pathogens. The information must then be integrated and an appropriate response initiated by modulating the cellular programme of gene expression. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways play a critical role in this process. Decades of research have illuminated the many ways in which MAPKs regulate the synthesis of mRNA (transcription) via phosphorylation of transcription factors, cofactors, and other proteins. In recent years it has become increasingly clear that the control of mRNA destruction is equally important for cellular responses to extracellular cues, and is equally subject to regulation by MAPKs. This review will summarize our current understanding of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by the MAPKs and the proteins that are involved in this process.

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    • "Transcription is further regulated by the binding of sequence-specific repressor and activator proteins (transcription factors) to DNA elements and/or to the transcription machinery at promoters. The quantitative importance of posttranscriptional mechanisms in the regulation of protein concentrations and activities is becoming increasingly clear (Clark et al., 2009; Daran-Lapujade et al., 2004; Day and Tuite, 1998; Haanstra et al., 2008; Kolkman et al., 2006). In many eukaryotes, the first events after transcription are mRNA splicing and the transport of mRNA molecules from the nucleus to the cytosol, both of which can be regulated (Licatalosi and Darnell, 2010). "
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