Burke S, Martyn M, Thomas H, Farndon P. The development of core learning outcomes relevant to clinical practice: Identifying priority areas for genetics education for non-genetics specialist registrars
Advances in medical genetics are increasingly impacting on clinical practice outside specialist genetic services. It is widely acknowledged that physicians will need to use genetics knowledge and skills in order to incorporate these advances into patient care. In order to determine priority areas for genetics education for non-genetics specialist registrars, an educational needs assessment was undertaken. Consultants from cardiology, dermatology, neurology and genetics identified genetics knowledge, skills and attitudes required by non-genetics specialty trainees. From these, and informed by trainees' views of genetic education, six genetics learning outcomes that non-genetics medical specialty trainees should attain by the end of their training have been identified, each linked to core knowledge, skills and attitudes. These core concepts can be taught with reference to specialty-specific conditions to highlight their relevance to clinical practice. The results of this study are informing the genetic component of postgraduate medical training curricula.
"Development of LOs is now standard practice in higher education. Various methods are used to facilitate definition of specific module LOs from experts and students such as survey-based questionnaires , the Delphi method , student self-assessments  and expert working groups [9, 10]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Learning outcomes are typically developed using standard group-based consensus methods. Two main constraints with standard techniques such as the Delphi method or expert working group processes are: (1) the ability to generate a comprehensive set of outcomes and (2) the capacity to reach agreement on them. We describe the first application of Group Concept Mapping (GCM) to the development of learning outcomes for an interdisciplinary module in medicine and engineering. The biomedical design module facilitates undergraduate participation in clinician-mentored team-based projects that prepare students for a multidisciplinary work environment. GCM attempts to mitigate the weaknesses of other consensus methods by excluding pre-determined classification schemes and inter-coder discussion, and by requiring just one round of data structuring. Academic members from medicine and engineering schools at three EU higher education institutions participated in this study. Data analysis, which included multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis, identified two main categories of outcomes: technical skills (new advancement in design process with special attention to users, commercialization and standardization) and transversal skills such as working effectively in teams and creative problem solving. The study emphasizes the need to address the highest order of learning taxonomy (analysis, synthesis, problem solving, creativity) when defining learning outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advances in medical genetics are increasingly being incorporated into clinical management outside specialist genetic services. This study was therefore undertaken to develop learning outcomes in genetics for general practice specialty training, using methods to ensure the knowledge, skills, and attitudes relevant to genetics in primary care were identified.
To identify key knowledge, skills, and attitudes in genetics and to synthesise these into learning outcomes to assist training in genetics for primary care.
Delphi survey and review by expert group.
Primary care practices and Regional Genetics Centre in the West Midlands region of the UK.
A modified Delphi survey involved GP trainers, programme directors, and geneticists (n = 60). The results, along with results from a survey of GP registrars, were reviewed by an expert group, which included GPs, geneticists, and educationalists.
Core genetics topics for GPs were identified, prioritised, and developed into competency statements in the style of the curriculum structure of the Royal College of General Practitioners.
The development of the GP curriculum statement Genetics in Primary Care was based on a study of educational needs, incorporating the views of practitioners (GP trainers, programme directors, and registrars) and specialists (clinical geneticists). This inclusive approach has enabled the identification of learning outcomes which directly reflect clinical practice.
British Journal of General Practice 03/2009; 59(559):99-103. DOI:10.3399/bjgp09X395094 · 2.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lack of knowledge among clinicians regarding pharmacogenetics is often cited as one of the barriers delaying its clinical uptake, albeit there are many other, more crucial aspects that impede the implementation of pharmacogenetics into routine medical practice. Pharmacogenetics has been incorporated to the MD teaching curriculum at the Tel Aviv University Faculty of Medicine (Tel Aviv, Israel) since 2001 and offered as an elective class for graduate students since 2003. I share here my pharmacogenetics teaching experience over the past decade and look forward to 2020 when - hopefully - the use of pharmacogenetics tools will have become more established in routine clinical care.
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