A review of HIV antiretroviral adherence and intervention studies among HIV-infected youth.

Fenway Institute, Fenway Community Health, Boston, MA 02119, USA.
Topics in HIV medicine: a publication of the International AIDS Society, USA 17(1):14-25.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Advances in antiretroviral medications have resulted in precipitous declines in HIV-associated morbidity and mortality; however, high levels of adherence are crucial to the success of HIV therapies. This article reviews published studies in the United States on HIV-infected youth (ages 13 to 24 years), focusing on adherence to antiretroviral regimens and interventions designed to enhance adherence. A systematic search yielded 21 articles published between 1999 and 2008 that reported data on medication adherence in HIV-infected youth, of which 7 described unique interventions to enhance medication adherence. Five thematic areas were identified to classify factors associated with adherence. Findings suggest psychosocial factors, in particular depression and anxiety, were consistently associated with poorer adherence across studies. Three types of adherence interventions with HIV-infected youth were found. Results suggest that examining adherence within the broader contextual issues present in the lives of youth, including HIV stigma and disclosure, caregiver stress, peer relations, mental health and substance use, and length of time on medications, may be most important to understanding how best to intervene with adherence among this population. Secondary HIV prevention interventions for youth represent a possible mode through which to deliver individually tailored adherence skill building and counseling to improve medication adherence.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction The 50% increase in HIV-related deaths in youth and adolescents (aged 10–24) from 2005 to 2012 highlights the need to improve HIV treatment and care in this population, including treatment adherence and retention. Youth and adolescents from key populations or young key populations (YKP) in particular are highly stigmatized and may face additional barrier(s) in adhering to HIV treatment and services. We reviewed the current knowledge on treatment adherence and retention in HIV care among YKP to identify gaps in the literature and suggest future directions to improve HIV care for YKP. Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature search for YKP and their adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and retention in HIV care on PsycInfo (Ovid), PubMed and Google Scholar using combinations of the keywords HIV/AIDS, ART, adolescents, young adults, adherence (or compliance), retention, men who have sex with men, transgender, injection drug users, people who inject drugs and prisoners. We included empirical studies on key populations defined by WHO; included the terms youth and adolescents and/or aged between 10 and 24; examined adherence to or retention in HIV care; and published in English-language journals. All articles were coded using NVivo. Results and discussion The systematic search yielded 10 articles on YKP and 16 articles on behaviourally infected youth and adolescents from 1999 to 2014. We found no studies reporting on youth and adolescents identified as sex workers, transgender people and prisoners. From existing literature, adherence to ART was reported to be influenced by age, access to healthcare, the burden of multiple vulnerabilities, policy involving risk behaviours and mental health. A combination of two or more of these factors negatively impacted adherence to ART among YKP. Collectively, these studies demonstrated that future programmes need to be tailored specifically to YKP to ensure adherence. Conclusions There is an urgent need for more systematic research in YKP. Current limited evidence suggests that healthcare delivery should be tailored to the unique needs of YKP. Thus, research on YKP could be used to inform future interventions to improve access to treatment and management of co-morbidities related to HIV, to ease the transition from paediatric to adult care and to increase uptake of secondary prevention methods.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 02/2015; 18(Suppl 1):19393. DOI:10.7448/IAS.18.2.19393 · 4.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The number of youth and adolescents (10-24 years) with HIV infection has increased substantially presenting unique challenges to effective health service delivery. We examined routinely collected patient-level data for antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naive HIV-infected patients, aged 10-24 years, enrolled in care during 2006-2011 at 109 ICAP-supported health facilities in three provinces in Kenya. Loss to follow-up (LTF) was defined as having no clinic visit for 12 months prior to ART initiation (pre-ART) and 6 months for ART patients. Competing risk and Kaplan-Meier estimators were used to calculate LTF and death rates. Sub-distributional and Cox proportional-hazards models were used to identify potential predictors of death and LTF. Overall 22 832 patients were enrolled in care at 10-24 years of age, 69.5% were aged 20-24 years, and 82% were female. Median CD4 cell count was 332 cells/μl (interquartile range 153-561); 70.8% were WHO stage I/II. Young adolescents (10-14 years) had more advanced WHO stage and lower median CD4 cell count compared to youth (15-24 years) at enrollment (284 vs. 340 cells/μl; P < 0.0001). Cumulative incidence of LTF and death at 24 months for pre-ART patients was 46.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 45.4-46.8%) and 2.1% (95% CI 1.9-2.3%), respectively. For those on ART, 32.2% (95% CI 31.1-33.3%) were LTF and 3.9% (95% CI 1.7-2.3%) died within 24 months. LTF among pre-ART and ART patients was twice as high among youth compared to young adolescents. LTF of young people with HIV in this Kenyan cohort was high and notably greater among youth compared to young adolescents. Novel strategies targeting these populations are urgently needed to improve retention.
    AIDS (London, England) 11/2014; 28(18):2729-2738. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000473 · 6.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Young key populations, defined in this article as men who have sex with men, transgender persons, people who sell sex and people who inject drugs, are at particularly high risk for HIV. Due to the often marginalized and sometimes criminalized status of young people who identify as members of key populations, there is a need for HIV prevention packages that account for the unique and challenging circumstances they face. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is likely to become an important element of combination prevention for many young key populations. Objective: In this paper, we discuss important challenges to HIV prevention among young key populations, identify key components of a tailored combination prevention package for this population and examine the role of PrEP in these prevention packages. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive review of the evidence to date on prevention strategies, challenges to prevention and combination prevention packages for young key populations. We focused specifically on the role of PrEP in these prevention packages and on young people under the age of 24, and 18 in particular. Results and discussion: Combination prevention packages that include effective, acceptable and scalable behavioural, structural and biologic interventions are needed for all key populations to prevent new HIV infections. Interventions in these packages should meaningfully involve beneficiaries in the design and implementation of the intervention, and take into account the context in which the intervention is being delivered to thoughtfully address issues of stigma and discrimination. These interventions will likely be most effective if implemented in conjunction with strategies to facilitate an enabling environment, including increasing access to HIV testing and health services for PrEP and other prevention strategies, decriminalizing key populations' practices, increasing access to prevention and care, reducing stigma and discrimination, and fostering community empowerment. PrEP could offer a highly effective, time-limited primary prevention for young key populations if it is implemented in combination with other programs to increase access to health services and encourage the reliable use of PrEP while at risk of HIV exposure. Conclusions: Reductions in HIV incidence will only be achieved through the implementation of combinations of interventions that include biomedical and behavioural interventions, as well as components that address social, economic and other structural factors that influence HIV prevention and transmission.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 02/2015; 18(2(Suppl 1)):19434. DOI:10.7448/IAS.18.2.19434 · 4.21 Impact Factor