Parkinson's disease and residential exposure to maneb and paraquat from agricultural applications in the central valley of California.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, 94720-7360, USA.
American journal of epidemiology (Impact Factor: 4.98). 04/2009; 169(8):919-26. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwp006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Evidence from animal and cell models suggests that pesticides cause a neurodegenerative process leading to Parkinson's disease (PD). Human data are insufficient to support this claim for any specific pesticide, largely because of challenges in exposure assessment. The authors developed and validated an exposure assessment tool based on geographic information systems that integrated information from California Pesticide Use Reports and land-use maps to estimate historical exposure to agricultural pesticides in the residential environment. In 1998-2007, the authors enrolled 368 incident PD cases and 341 population controls from the Central Valley of California in a case-control study. They generated estimates for maneb and paraquat exposures incurred between 1974 and 1999. Exposure to both pesticides within 500 m of the home increased PD risk by 75% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13, 2.73). Persons aged < or =60 years at the time of diagnosis were at much higher risk when exposed to either maneb or paraquat alone (odds ratio = 2.27, 95% CI: 0.91, 5.70) or to both pesticides in combination (odds ratio = 4.17, 95% CI: 1.15, 15.16) in 1974-1989. This study provides evidence that exposure to a combination of maneb and paraquat increases PD risk, particularly in younger subjects and/or when exposure occurs at younger ages.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As a result of nuclear power plants accidents such as Chernobyl or Fukushima, some people were exposed to external and internal ionizing radiation (IR). Human brain is highly sensitive to IR during fetal and postnatal period when the molecular processes are not completely finished. Various studies have shown that exposure to low doses of IR causes a higher incidence of cognitive impairment. On the other hand, in industrialized countries, people are daily exposed to a number of toxicant pollutants. Exposure to environmental chemicals, such as paraquat (PQ), may potentiate the toxic effects induced by radiation on brain development. In this study, we evaluated the cognitive effects of concomitant exposure to low doses of internal radiation (137Cs) and PQ during neonatal brain development. At the postnatal day 10 (PND10), two groups of mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 137Cs (4000 and 8000 Bq/kg) and/or PQ (7 mg/kg). To investigate the spontaneous behavior, learning, memory capacities and anxiety, behavioral tests were conducted in the offspring at two months of age. The results showed that cognitive functions were not significantly affected when 137Cs or PQ were administered alone. However, alterations in the working memory and anxiety were detected in mice exposed to 137Cs combined with PQ.
    Toxicology 01/2015; 329. DOI:10.1016/j.tox.2015.01.012 · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In order to investigate the effect of hemoperfusion (HP) on the clearance rate of paraquat (PQ) and develop a clearance model, 41 PQ-poisoned patients who acquired acute PQ intoxication received HP treatment. PQ concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). According to initial PQ concentration, study subjects were divided into two groups: Low-PQ group (0.05-1.0 μg/mL) and High-PQ group (1.0-10 μg/mL). After initial HP treatment, PQ concentrations decreased in both groups. However, in the High-PQ group, PQ levels remained in excess of 0.05 μg/mL and increased when the second HP treatment was initiated. Based on the PQ concentrations before and after HP treatment, the mean clearance rate of PQ calculated was 73 ± 15%. We also established a backpropagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) model, which set PQ concentrations before HP treatment as input data and after HP treatment as output data. When it is used to predict PQ concentration after HP treatment, high prediction accuracy (R = 0.9977) can be obtained in this model. In conclusion, HP is an effective way to clear PQ from the blood, and the PQ concentration after HP treatment can be predicted by BP-ANN model.
    BioMed Research International 01/2015; 2015:298253. DOI:10.1155/2015/298253 · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parkinson disease (PD) is the third most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting humans. Although it is clear that the etiology of a small number of PD cases is strictly genetic (either dominant or recessive) or purely environmental factors (e.g., pesticides, drug use, viruses, heavy metal exposure), it is likely that most cases arise from a combination of the two risk factors. For this reason, the generation and study of animal models where these interactions can be studied can provide important information regarding the pathophysiology of PD. In this chapter, we examine the mechanisms underlying xenobiotic-induced Parkinsonism using 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine as the model agent. We also examine other environmental agents that have been shown to induce Parkinsonism, including paraquat, lippopolysaccharide, and the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.
    Movement Disorder. Genetics and models, Second edited by Mark LeDoux, 10/2014: pages 287-306; Elsevier., ISBN: 978-0-12-405195-9

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 20, 2014