Cdc37 regulates Ryk signaling by stabilizing the cleaved Ryk intracellular domain
ABSTRACT Ryk is a Wnt receptor that plays an important role in neurogenesis, neurite outgrowth, and axon guidance. We have reported that the Ryk receptor is cleaved by gamma-secretase and that its intracellular domain (ICD) translocates to the nucleus upon Wnt stimulation. Cleavage of Ryk and its ICD is important for the function of Ryk in neurogenesis. However, the question of how the Ryk ICD is stabilized and translocated into the nucleus remains unanswered. Here, we show that the Ryk ICD undergoes ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. We have identified Cdc37, a subunit of the molecular chaperone Hsp90 complex, as a Ryk ICD-interacting protein that inhibits proteasomal degradation of the Ryk ICD. Overexpression of Cdc37 increases Ryk ICD levels and promotes its nuclear localization, whereas Cdc37 knockdown reduces Ryk ICD stability. Furthermore, we have discovered that the Cdc37-Ryk ICD complex is disrupted during neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells, resulting in Ryk ICD degradation. These results suggest that Cdc37 plays an essential role in regulating Ryk ICD stability and therefore in Ryk-mediated signal transduction.
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ABSTRACT: Conserved Ryk transmembrane proteins, tyrosine kinase-related Wnt receptors, are important during neurogenesis, axon guidance and synaptogenesis. Here, we review the increasingly complex biology of the Wnt/Ryk pathway, emphasizing the mechanisms by which Ryks transduce or sometimes block the Wnt signal. Recent studies reveal that Wnts signal through Ryk via multiple mechanisms, including nuclear translocation of their intracellular domains and pathways employing Src Family Kinases and members of the canonical Wnt pathway. We also discuss reports indicating that Wnt/Ryk axon guidance roles are evolutionarily conserved and Wnt/Ryk interactions are required for motoneuron target selection and synaptogenesis at the neuromuscular junction. Recent findings that injury-induced Wnt/Ryk pathway activation inhibits axon regeneration underscore the importance of further understanding this novel pathway.Trends in Neurosciences 12/2009; 33(2):84-92. DOI:10.1016/j.tins.2009.11.005 · 12.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Developmental pathways may be play a role in adult cell survival. However, whether they interact with longevity/cell survival pathways to confer protection against disease-associated proteotoxicity remains largely unknown. We previously reported that the inhibition of key longevity modulators such as the deacetylase sir-2.1/SIRT1 (Sir2) and its target daf-16/FoxO protects transgenics nematodes from muscle cell decline and abnormal motility produced by the expression of mutant (polyalanine-expanded) PABPN1, the oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) protein. Here, we report that canonical Wnt signaling (i) modulates muscular pathology in mutant PABPN1 nematodes, and (ii) cooperates with the Sir2-FoxO longevity pathway to confer protection against mutant PABPN1 toxicity at the cellular and behavioral levels. Mutant PABPN1 toxicity was modified by genes along the canonical Wnt pathway, several of which depend on daf-16 for activity. ss-catenin and pop-1/TCF RNAi suppressed the protection from mutant PABPN1 confered by loss-of-function mutations in sir-2.1 and daf-16. Moreover, the aggravation of muscle cell pathology by increased sir-2.1 dosage was reversed by ss-catenin and pop-1 RNAi. The chemical inhibition of GSK-3ss, a repressor of ss-catenin activity, protected against mutant PABPN1 toxicity in a daf-16-dependent manner, which is consistent with a cross-talk between ss-catenin signaling and Sir2-FoxO signaling in protecting from mutant PABPN1 toxicity. Our data reveal that canonical Wnt signaling and Sir2-FoxO signaling interact to modulate diseased muscle survival, and indicate that GSK-3ss inhibitors and sirtuin inhibitors both have therapeutic potential for muscle protection in OPMD.Neurobiology of Disease 03/2010; 38(3):425-33. DOI:10.1016/j.nbd.2010.03.002 · 5.20 Impact Factor