Prevalence of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern in healthcare workers at Namazi Hospital, Shiraz, Iran.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among healthcare workers (HCWs) at Namazi Hospital, Shiraz, Iran.
This cross-sectional study was conducted from July to November 2006. Nasal swabs were taken from 600 randomly selected HCWs. The isolates were identified as S. aureus based on morphology, Gram stain, catalase test, coagulase test, and mannitol salt agar fermentation. To analyze sensitivity patterns of MRSA strains more precisely, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics were determined by the E-test method. All methicillin-resistant isolates were examined for the existence of the mecA gene by total DNA extraction and PCR.
The prevalence of nasal carriage of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was 25.7% and of MRSA was 5.3%, with the highest nasal carriage of MRSA in surgical wards and the emergency department. There was no significant difference between the sexes (p=0.247), age (p=0.817), and years of healthcare service (p=0.15) with regard to the nasal carriage of MRSA and MSSA. In the univariate analysis, a statistically significant difference was only found for occupation (p=0.032) between the carriage of MSSA and MRSA. In the multivariate analysis, the occupation 'nurse' was independently associated with MRSA carriage (p=0.012, odds ratio 3.6, 95% confidence interval 1.3-9.7). The highest resistance rate for both gentamicin and clindamycin (69%) was noted among the MRSA strains. None of the MRSA strains were resistant to mupirocin, linezolid, fusidic acid, or vancomycin. The existence of the mecA gene in all 32 methicillin-resistant isolates was observed by PCR.
This study revealed the prevalence of nasal carriage of S. aureus strains among HCWs to be lower than that found in other studies from Iran. The antibiotic susceptibility patterns also differed, perhaps as a result of the excessive use of antibiotics at our hospital. Only the occupation of nurse was an independent risk factor for MRSA carriage.
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ABSTRACT: Today, significant increase in the prevalence and emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a serious public health concern and is likely to have a dramatic negative impact on many current medical practices. Therefore, identification of MRSA strains is important for both clinical and epidemiological implications.Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology 07/2014; 7(7):e16984. · 0.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) were evaluated for 178 health care workers from a public hospital pediatrics department in Brazil. Colonization rates were 33.1% for S aureus and 5.1% for MRSA. Risk factors for S aureus colonization differed from those for MRSA. Results suggest nurses with prolonged pediatric patient contact in inpatient units are at higher risk for MRSA colonization.American journal of infection control. 08/2014; 42(8):918-920.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen of public health importance. The prevalence of MRSA and its antimicrobial resistance pattern, as well as SCCmec and spa types, remain unclear both in the community and in the hospitals of the western region of Iran. Methods One hundred MRSA isolates were collected from different hospitals in the west of Iran during 2010–2011. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing to 15 antimicrobial agents was carried out by disk agar diffusion (DAD) method in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were evaluated by a broth microdilution method. The Etest was used for the detection of highly gentamicin-resistant MRSA. A combination of single and multiplex PCR was used for the detection of different resistance genes, including beta-lactamase, aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AMEs), and macrolide–lincosamine, and for SCCmec typing of MRSA isolates. Genotyping of MRSA isolates was performed via spa typing. Results All tested isolates were susceptible to quinupristin–dalfopristin, linezolid, and vancomycin, but were resistant to penicillin (100%), erythromycin (50%), clindamycin (27%), and gentamicin (18%). MIC50 and MIC90 was 256 μg/ml among gentamicin-resistant MRSA. The most prevalent AME genes among aminoglycoside-resistant isolates were aac(6′)-1e-aph(2′′)-1a (77.8%), aph(3′)-IIIa (38.9%), and ant(4′)-1a (27.8%). Nearly all tetracycline- and erythromycin-resistant MRSA had ermA and/or ermC but not ermB. Five SCCmec types and subtypes, 13 spa types, and four BURP groups (A–D) were identified. SCCmec types III (45%) and IVc (24%), spa type t701 (30%), and new spa type t12311 (15%) were the most prevalent among MRSA isolates. Conclusions This study showed the emergence of MRSA with SCCmec type III and with spa types t12311, t10740, t1234, t1991, and t2651 with different phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance in the west of Iran. We found different SCCmec and spa types distributed among nosocomial and non-nosocomial MRSA in the west of Iran.International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 01/2014;