GC-MS analysis of liposoluble constituents from the stems of Cynomorium songaricum.
ABSTRACT In order to evaluate the differences and similarities between the liposoluble constituents in Cynomorium songaricum populations, stem liposoluble constituents in five populations of C. songaricum collected from three different geographic regions and four different hosts were obtained by solvent extraction and analyzed by GC-MS. Cluster analysis of the percentage composition of 80 compounds showed differences in chemical composition which were related to the geographic origin rather than the host. Hexadecanoic acid was the most abundant compound in the essential oils of C. songaricum from hosts Nitraria sibirica and Nitraria tanguticum. Whereas (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid was accumulated in the oils of C. songaricum from Zygophyllum xanthoxylum and Peganum harmala. Four of the five populations had characteristic components, which were specific to each population.
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ABSTRACT: Cynomorium coccineum L. is a non-photosynthetic plant, spread over Mediterranean countries, amply used in traditional medicine. We investigated the composition and effect on intestinal Caco-2 cell viability and lipid profile of fixed oil obtained from dried stems of the plant. Oil isolation has been performed by supercritical fractioned extraction with CO(2). (13)C NMR spectroscopy has been used to study the molecular composition of oil lipids; fatty acid composition was identified using GC and HPLC techniques. The fixed oil was composed mainly by triacylglycerols and derivates. The main fatty acids were 18:1 n-9 (38%), 18:2 n-6 (20%), 16:0 (15%), and 18:3 n-3 (10.8%). The oil showed a significant in vitro inhibitory effect on the growth of colon cancer undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. Moreover, cell viability, lipid composition, and lipid peroxidation were measured in intestinal epithelial cells (differentiated Caco-2 cells) after 24h incubation with fixed oil. The oil did not show a toxic effect on colon epithelial cell viability but induced a significant change in fatty acid composition, with a significant accumulation of the essential fatty acids 18:3 n-3 and 18:2 n-6. The results showed remarkable biological activity of Maltese mushroom oil, and qualify it as a potential resource for food/pharmaceutical applications.Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 07/2012; 50(10):3799-807. · 2.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The growth in the production of biodiesel, which is principally fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), has been phenomenal in the last ten years because of the general desire to cut down on the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, and also as a result of the increasing cost of fossil fuels. Establish whether there is any relationship between two different species (watermelon and muskmelon) within the same family (Cucurbitaceae) on fatty acid compositions and enumerate the different fatty acids in the two species. Extraction of fatty acids from the two species and preparation the extract to gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis to determine the fatty acids compositions qualitatively and quantitatively. The analyzed plants (watermelon and muskmelon) contain five saturated fatty acids; tetrdecanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid with different concentrations, while muskmelon contains an extra saturated fatty acid named eicosanoic acid. The watermelon plant contains five unsaturated fatty acids while muskmelon contains three only, the two plants share in two unsaturated fatty acids named 9-hexadecenoic acid and 9-octadecenoic acid, the muskmelon plant contains higher amounts of these two acids (2.04% and 10.12%, respectively) over watermelon plant (0.88% and 0.25%, respectively). The chemical analysis of watermelon and muskmelon revealed that they are similar in saturated fatty acids but differ in unsaturated fatty acids which may be a criterion of differentiation between the two plants.Pharmacognosy Magazine 01/2013; 9(33):58-66. · 1.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Species of the genus Cynomorium (Cynomoriaceae), including C. songaricum Rupr. and C. coccineum L., have a long history of medical use in traditional medicine to treat various ailments, such as impotence, premature ejaculation, kidney-yang deficiency, spermatorrhea, colic, and stomach ulcers. Additionally, these species are used in healthy foods, tea, and cosmetics. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The aim of this review is to provide comprehensive information on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological research, and toxicology of C. songaricum and C. coccineum and to explore the therapeutic potential and future research opportunities on these species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All of the available information on C. songaricum and C. coccineum were collected via electronic search (using PubMed, ACS, CNKI, Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, and Web of Science). RESULTS: The ethnomedical uses of C. songaricum and C. coccineum in Saudi Arabia, China, Afghanistan, Mongolia, and Iran for several types of ailments were recorded. A phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, phloroglucinol adducts, saccharides, phenylpropanoids, steroids, organic acids, and other compounds. The crude extracts and pure compounds from C. songaricum and C. coccineum exhibited a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activity, such as anti-fatigue, anti-hypoxia, anti-oxidation, anti-diabetic, immune system modulating, and antiviral activity. CONCLUSIONS: Cynomorium species have emerged as a source of traditional medicine. Many studies have provided evidence for various therapeutic efficacy and mechanism. However, further research is required for the development of new drugs and therapies for the treatment of various diseases, especially cancer and diabetes. Therefore, this review on ethanopharmacology, phytochemistry, and toxicity of Cynomorium species will provide helpful data for further studies and commercial exploitation of the species.Journal of ethnopharmacology 01/2013; · 2.32 Impact Factor