Complicated grief in patients with unipolar depression

Department of Psychiatry, University of Muenster, Germany.
Journal of Affective Disorders (Impact Factor: 3.38). 04/2009; 118(1-3):201-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2009.01.033
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The loss of a close family member (e.g. child or spouse) has been shown to be one of the most stressful life-events increasing the risk of affective disorders. In the present study, we investigated for the first time the frequency of complicated grief in psychiatric inpatients with unipolar depression. Further, the study was aimed to identify characteristics predicting a complicated grief reaction in depressed patients.
In a sample of 73 DSM-IV diagnosed unipolar affective disordered inpatients grief, depression, anxiety and psychological stress reaction were assessed.
A high prevalence of loss and impairing complicated grief was found in this sample of unipolar depressed patients. Depressed patients with complicated grief were more severely depressed than depressed patients without complicated grief reactions. Higher traumatic stress and close family membership of the lost person were associated with higher severity of grief.
Comorbid complicated grief appears to contribute to greater severity and poorer functioning in unipolar depressed patients and should be specifically addressed in psychotherapeutic treatment.

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    • "Encontraron que el grado de sintomatología no era muy diferente entre unos y otros, solamente existían diferencias significativas cuando se encontraban niveles severos de DC. En otro estudio de pacientes con TDM también se encontró que aquellos que contaban con el diagnóstico de DC presentaban niveles mayores de depresión (Kersting et al. 2009). Los dos últimos estudios enfatizaron en la importancia de evaluar las pérdidas y el duelo complicado de forma rutinaria en pacientes de salud mental. "
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    ABSTRACT: The importance of loss and bereavement for depression has been established in the literature. Objectives. To identify the prevalence of different kinds of losses among participants and to explore their perception of having overcome (or not) those losses and of their possible relationship with depressive symptoms (if any). Method. An incidental sample of 288 participants was assessed using the History of Loss Inventory (HLI) and the BDI-II. Results. 42.71% of the sample reported not having overcome at least one of their losses. Symptom severity correlated with the total number of losses, and with unresolved bereavement. Conclusion. To explore the history of losses might be convenient both in studies in areas where literature suggests the importance of bereavement such as depression and in therapy right from the first contact with the patient, as an issue to consider for treatment planning. The HLI is a suitable and brief instrument for that purpose.
    Revista Argentina de Clinica Psicologica 01/2015; 24(2):179-188. · 0.10 Impact Factor
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    • "It is important to note that the present sample is very different from most samples that explore prolonged grief. Other studies use predominantly older (or at least middle aged) participants who are recruited via hospices/hospitals; they have usually been involved in the care of the dying person therefore have a close relationship (Prigerson et al., 2002; Maercker et al., 2008; Kersting et al., 2009). Perhaps the prevalence rates previously published are not generalizable to the whole population. "
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    ABSTRACT: Few epidemiological studies have investigated prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in the general population of Asian countries, including China. The aim of this study was to explore the rates and risks of PGD, and the association between PGD, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety in bereaved Chinese adults. The PG-13, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) were administered to 445 subjects. Prevalence within the general population of China was 1.8% (i.e., 8/445). Among the eight subjects who met the PGD diagnosis, 75%, 87.5% and 75% scored above the cut-off point on the PCL-C, SDS and SAS, respectively, although a portion remained free from comorbidity. ANOVA, correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that kinship to deceased, age of the deceased, religion belief and cause of death were predictive of prolonged grief. A small proportion of bereaved persons may exhibit PGD. There is a substantial but far from complete overlap between PGD and the other three diagnoses. Bereaved parents and the widowed have high risk of PGD. These findings highlight the need for prevention, diagnosis and treatment for PGD patients.
    Psychiatry Research 05/2014; 219(2). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.05.022 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    • "These studies estimate that 85–90% of bereaved individuals go through an uncomplicated and normal grieving process. A higher CG prevalence rate of 18.6% has been found in hospitalized patients with unipolar depression (Kersting et al., 2009), and a prevalence rate of 24.3% has been reported for bipolar patients (Simon et al., 2005). Epidemiological studies based on population-based surveys are rare. "
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    ABSTRACT: Complicated grief (CG) has been proposed as a distinct diagnostic category in the next edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). However, few epidemiological studies to date have measured CG in the general population. Prevalence of CG, sociodemographic characteristics, and grief-related factors were examined in a representative population-based survey (N = 2520) through face-to-face contact. The sample included all bereaved subpopulations and all age groups from 14 to 95 years. The conditional prevalence of developing CG after major bereavement was 6.7%; the prevalence of CG in the general sample was 3.7%. Predictors of higher risk for developing CG were female gender, lower income (< €1250/month), older age (> 61 years), having lost a child or a spouse, or cancer as the cause of death. The sample of bereaved people was small, and some categories contained very few cases. Psychiatric comorbidities were not assessed in this study. The results indicate that CG is prevalent in the population, and risk factors were identified.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 06/2011; 131(1-3):339-43. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2010.11.032 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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