Tobacco smoking behaviors in bipolar disorder: a comparison of the general population, schizophrenia, and major depression.
ABSTRACT This study compared the prevalence of tobacco smoking behaviors in patients with bipolar disorder with normal and psychiatric (schizophrenia and major depression) controls. The main goal was to establish that bipolar patients smoke more than normal controls. Differences with psychiatric controls were explored.
Samples of 424 patients (99 bipolar, 258 schizophrenia and 67 major depression) and 402 volunteer controls were collected in Central Kentucky. Smoking data for Kentucky's general population were available. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to establish the strength of associations. Logistic regression was used to adjust ORs for confounding variables.
Using epidemiological definitions of smoking behaviors and the general population as controls provided bipolar disorder unadjusted ORs of 5.0 (95% CI: 3.3-7.8) for current cigarette smoking, 2.6 (95% CI: 1.7-4.4) for ever cigarette smoking, and 0.13 (95% CI: 0.03-0.24) for smoking cessation. Using a clinical definition and volunteers as controls provided respective bipolar disorder adjusted ORs of 7.3 (95% CI: 4.3-12.4), 4.0 (95% CI: 2.4-6.7), and 0.15 (95% CI: 0.06-0.36). Prevalences of current daily smoking for patients with major depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia were 57%, 66%, and 74%, respectively.
Bipolar disorder was associated with significantly higher prevalences of tobacco smoking behaviors compared with the general population or volunteer controls, independently of the definition used. It is possible that smoking behaviors in bipolar disorder may have intermediate prevalences between major depression and schizophrenia, but larger samples or a combination of multiple studies (meta-analysis) will be needed to establish whether this hypothesis is correct.
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ABSTRACT: Tobacco dependence is the most common substance use disorder in adults with mental illness. The prevalence rates for tobacco dependence are two to four times higher in these patients than in the general population. Smoking has a strong, negative influence on the life expectancy and quality of life of mental health patients, and remains the leading preventable cause of death in this group. Despite these statistics, in some countries smokers with mental illness are disadvantaged in receiving intervention and support for their tobacco dependence, which is often overlooked or even tolerated. This statement from the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) systematically reviews the current evidence on tobacco dependence and withdrawal in patients with mental illness and their treatment. It provides seven recommendations for the core components of diagnostics and treatment in this patient group. These recommendations concern: (1) the recording process, (2) the timing of the intervention, (3) counselling specificities, (4) proposed treatments, (5) frequency of contact after stopping, (6) follow-up visits and (7) relapse prevention. They aim to help clinicians improve the care, health and well-being of patients suffering from mental illness.European Psychiatry 01/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2013.11.002 · 3.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Bipolar disorder may be associated with a hypersensitive behavioral approach system and therefore to increased reward sensitivity. The objective of this study is to explore the interrelationships between bipolar disorder, behavioral addictions, and personality/temperament traits in a group of euthymic outpatients with bipolar I disorder and in a group of comparison subjects. Methods: Fifty clinically stable patients and 50 comparison subjects matched for age, sex, and educational level were administered the Temperament and Character Inventory-140 and the Behavioral Addiction Scale. Results: The patient group scored significantly higher than comparison subjects for two benign behavioral addictions (music, shopping) as well as for smoking. Comparison subjects scored higher on two harmful behavioral addictions (drugs, alcohol). Novelty Seeking was positively correlated with harmful addictions, and Cooperativeness was negatively correlated with harmful addictions, in both groups. Discussion: The hypersensitive behavioral approach system model of bipolar disorder would predict higher levels of various addictions in bipolar patients as compared to controls. In this study, this was true for three behavioral addictions, whereas controls showed higher levels of behavioral addiction to drugs and alcohol. This may be because the patients in this study are stable, have received considerable psychoeducation, and are relatively adherent to their medication recommendations. Temperament and character traits may play roles both as risk and protective factors regarding behavioral addictions. Keywords: Bipolar disorder; Behavioral approach system; Behavioral addictions; Temperament12/2013; 1(27):1-7. DOI:10.1186/2194-7511-1-27
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ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder (BD) and nicotine dependence (ND) often co-occur. However, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. We aimed to examine, for the first time in a national and representative sample, the magnitude and direction of the temporal relationship between BD and ND; and to compare, among individuals with lifetime ND and BD, the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of individuals whose onset of ND preceded the onset of BD (ND-prior) with those whose onset of ND followed the onset of BD (BD-prior). The sample included individuals with lifetime BD type I or ND (n = 7958) from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, n = 43093). Survival analyses and logistic regression models were computed to study the temporal association between ND and BD, and to compare ND-prior (n = 135) and BD-prior (n = 386) individuals. We found that ND predicted the onset of BD and BD also predicted the onset of ND. Furthermore, the risk of developing one disorder following the other one was greatest early in the course of illness. Most individuals with lifetime ND and BD were BD-prior (72.6%). BD-prior individuals had an earlier onset of BD and a higher number of manic episodes. By contrast, ND-prior individuals had an earlier onset of both daily smoking and ND, and an increased prevalence of alcohol use disorder. In conclusion, ND and BD predict the development of each other. The phenomenology and course of ND and BD varied significantly depending on which disorder had earlier onset.Journal of Psychiatric Research 04/2013; 47(7). DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2013.03.012 · 4.09 Impact Factor