Tobacco smoking behaviors in bipolar disorder: a comparison of the general population, schizophrenia, and major depression.
ABSTRACT This study compared the prevalence of tobacco smoking behaviors in patients with bipolar disorder with normal and psychiatric (schizophrenia and major depression) controls. The main goal was to establish that bipolar patients smoke more than normal controls. Differences with psychiatric controls were explored.
Samples of 424 patients (99 bipolar, 258 schizophrenia and 67 major depression) and 402 volunteer controls were collected in Central Kentucky. Smoking data for Kentucky's general population were available. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to establish the strength of associations. Logistic regression was used to adjust ORs for confounding variables.
Using epidemiological definitions of smoking behaviors and the general population as controls provided bipolar disorder unadjusted ORs of 5.0 (95% CI: 3.3-7.8) for current cigarette smoking, 2.6 (95% CI: 1.7-4.4) for ever cigarette smoking, and 0.13 (95% CI: 0.03-0.24) for smoking cessation. Using a clinical definition and volunteers as controls provided respective bipolar disorder adjusted ORs of 7.3 (95% CI: 4.3-12.4), 4.0 (95% CI: 2.4-6.7), and 0.15 (95% CI: 0.06-0.36). Prevalences of current daily smoking for patients with major depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia were 57%, 66%, and 74%, respectively.
Bipolar disorder was associated with significantly higher prevalences of tobacco smoking behaviors compared with the general population or volunteer controls, independently of the definition used. It is possible that smoking behaviors in bipolar disorder may have intermediate prevalences between major depression and schizophrenia, but larger samples or a combination of multiple studies (meta-analysis) will be needed to establish whether this hypothesis is correct.
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ABSTRACT: This is a study of the metabolic and distal cardiovascular/cerebrovascular outcomes associated with the use of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) compared to antidepressants (ADs) in adults aged 18-65 years, based on data from Thomson Reuters MarketScan® Research Databases 2006-2010, a commercial U.S. claims database. Interventions included clinicians' choice treatment with SGAs (allowing any comedications) versus ADs (not allowing SGAs). The primary outcomes of interest were time to inpatient or outpatient claims for the following diagnoses within one year of SGA or AD discontinuation: hypertension, ischemic and hypertensive heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. Secondary outcomes included the same diagnoses at last follow-up time point, i.e., not censoring observations at 365 days after SGA or AD discontinuation. Cox regression models, adjusted for age, gender, diagnosis of schizophrenia and mood disorders, and number of medical comorbidities, were run. Among 284,234 individuals, those within one year of exposure to SGAs versus ADs showed a higher risk of essential hypertension (adjusted hazard ratio, AHR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.12-1.21, p<0.0001), diabetes mellitus (AHR=1.43, CI: 1.33-1.53, p<0.0001), hypertensive heart disease (AHR=1.34, CI: 1.10-1.63, p<0.01), stroke (AHR=1.46, CI: 1.22-1.75, p<0.0001), coronary artery disease (AHR=1.17, CI: 1.05-1.30, p<0.01), and hyperlipidemia (AHR=1.12, CI: 1.07-1.17, p<0.0001). Unrestricted follow-up results were consistent with within one-year post-exposure results. Increased risk for stroke with SGAs has previously only been demonstrated in elderly patients, usually with dementia. This study documents, for the first time, a significantly increased risk for stroke and coronary artery disease in a non-elderly adult sample with SGA use. We also confirm a significant risk for adverse metabolic outcomes. These findings raise concerns about the longer-term safety of SGAs, given their widespread and chronic use.02/2015; 14(1). DOI:10.1002/wps.20187
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ABSTRACT: Bipolar II (BPII) depression is commonly misdiagnosed as unipolar depression (UD); however, an objective and reliable tool to differentiate between these disorders is lacking. Whether cardiac autonomic function can be used as a biomarker to distinguish BPII from UD is unknown. We recruited 116 and 591 physically healthy patients with BPII depression and UD, respectively, and 421 healthy volunteers aged 20-65 years. Interviewer and self-reported measures of depression/anxiety severity were obtained. Cardiac autonomic function was evaluated by heart rate variability (HRV) and frequency-domain indices of HRV. Patients with BPII depression exhibited significantly lower mean R-R intervals, variance (total HRV), low frequency (LF)-HRV, and high frequency (HF)-HRV but higher LF/HF ratio compared to those with UD. The significant differences remained after adjusting for age. Compared to the controls, the patients with BPII depression showed cardiac sympathetic excitation with reciprocal vagal impairment, whereas the UD patients showed only vagal impairment. Depression severity independently contributed to decreased HRV and vagal tone in both the patients with BPII depression and UD, but increased sympathetic tone only in those with BPII depression. HRV may aid in the differential diagnosis of BPII depression and UD as an adjunct to diagnostic interviews.The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry 03/2015; DOI:10.3109/15622975.2015.1017606 · 4.23 Impact Factor