This study compared the prevalence of tobacco smoking behaviors in patients with bipolar disorder with normal and psychiatric (schizophrenia and major depression) controls. The main goal was to establish that bipolar patients smoke more than normal controls. Differences with psychiatric controls were explored.
Samples of 424 patients (99 bipolar, 258 schizophrenia and 67 major depression) and 402 volunteer controls were collected in Central Kentucky. Smoking data for Kentucky's general population were available. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to establish the strength of associations. Logistic regression was used to adjust ORs for confounding variables.
Using epidemiological definitions of smoking behaviors and the general population as controls provided bipolar disorder unadjusted ORs of 5.0 (95% CI: 3.3-7.8) for current cigarette smoking, 2.6 (95% CI: 1.7-4.4) for ever cigarette smoking, and 0.13 (95% CI: 0.03-0.24) for smoking cessation. Using a clinical definition and volunteers as controls provided respective bipolar disorder adjusted ORs of 7.3 (95% CI: 4.3-12.4), 4.0 (95% CI: 2.4-6.7), and 0.15 (95% CI: 0.06-0.36). Prevalences of current daily smoking for patients with major depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia were 57%, 66%, and 74%, respectively.
Bipolar disorder was associated with significantly higher prevalences of tobacco smoking behaviors compared with the general population or volunteer controls, independently of the definition used. It is possible that smoking behaviors in bipolar disorder may have intermediate prevalences between major depression and schizophrenia, but larger samples or a combination of multiple studies (meta-analysis) will be needed to establish whether this hypothesis is correct.
"Second, our study was a cross-sectional, observational study in nature, thus the cause-consequence relationships between smoking and risk factors could not be created. Third, the definition of smoking used in the present study is broader, because it defines a current smoker as an ever smoker who currently smokes daily or on some days . On the contrary, most of the previous clinical studies restricted current smokers to be ever smokers who currently smoke daily. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the prevalence rate of cigarette smoking and its socio-demographic and clinical correlates in Chinese schizophrenia inpatients receiving antipsychotic mono-therapy.
This study was a cross-sectional, two-site, hospital-based survey. Four hundred and twenty-nine schizophrenia patients (male/female: 66.9% vs. 33.1%) were consecutively recruited from psychosis inpatient wards of two large specialty psychiatric hospitals in mainland China. Patients were assessed using a cigarette smoking questionnaire, the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale, the Simpson Angus Scale, the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale, and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale. Socio-demographic and other clinical data were also collected. We calculated the prevalence of current smoking in our sample as well as its indirectly standardized prevalence ratio (ISPR) using data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey in China.
The prevalence rate of current smoking was 40.6% in our sample, and 57.5% in males and 6.3% in females. The ISPRs of all patients, men and women were 1.11(95%CI: 0.95∼1.29), 1.07(95%CI = 0.91∼1.24) and 4.64(95%CI = 2.12∼8.82), respectively. The overall and male-specific prevalence of current smoking did not differ significantly between patients and the general population. In multiple logistic regression analysis, male sex, older age, poor marital status, alcohol use, use of first-generation antipsychotics, longer duration of illness, more frequent hospitalizations, and more severe negative symptoms were independently associated with current smoking.
Male Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia who received a mono-therapy of antipsychotics were not more likely to smoke than the general population. Cigarette smoking is more common in schizophrenia patients with more severe illness.
PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e88478. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0088478 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"The prevalence of smoking is also higher (51% to 70%) in patients with bipolar disorder than in the general population      . Corvin et al.  showed a possible association between smoking and psychotic symptoms in bipolar disorder, although results of other studies are inconsistent . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tobacco dependence is the most common substance use disorder in adults with mental illness. The prevalence rates for tobacco dependence are two to four times higher in these patients than in the general population. Smoking has a strong, negative influence on the life expectancy and quality of life of mental health patients, and remains the leading preventable cause of death in this group. Despite these statistics, in some countries smokers with mental illness are disadvantaged in receiving intervention and support for their tobacco dependence, which is often overlooked or even tolerated. This statement from the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) systematically reviews the current evidence on tobacco dependence and withdrawal in patients with mental illness and their treatment. It provides seven recommendations for the core components of diagnostics and treatment in this patient group. These recommendations concern: (1) the recording process, (2) the timing of the intervention, (3) counselling specificities, (4) proposed treatments, (5) frequency of contact after stopping, (6) follow-up visits and (7) relapse prevention. They aim to help clinicians improve the care, health and well-being of patients suffering from mental illness.
European Psychiatry 01/2014; 29(2). DOI:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2013.11.002 · 3.44 Impact Factor
"We discuss possible explanations for this below. The finding of higher tobacco use among BP patients as compared to healthy controls is consistent with other reports (Diaz et al. 2009; Leonard et al. 2001; Itkin et al. 2001). High rates of substance abuse are also often reported among bipolar patients (Lagerberg et al. 2010; Strakowski and DelBello 2000; Swann 2010). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Bipolar disorder may be associated with a hypersensitive behavioral approach system and therefore to increased reward sensitivity. The objective of this study is to explore the interrelationships between bipolar disorder, behavioral addictions, and personality/temperament traits in a group of euthymic outpatients with bipolar I disorder and in a group of comparison subjects.
Fifty clinically stable patients and 50 comparison subjects matched for age, sex, and educational level were administered the Temperament and Character Inventory-140 and the Behavioral Addiction Scale.
The patient group scored significantly higher than comparison subjects for two benign behavioral addictions (music, shopping) as well as for smoking. Comparison subjects scored higher on two harmful behavioral addictions (drugs, alcohol). Novelty Seeking was positively correlated with harmful addictions, and Cooperativeness was negatively correlated with harmful addictions, in both groups.
The hypersensitive behavioral approach system model of bipolar disorder would predict higher levels of various addictions in bipolar patients as compared to controls. In this study, this was true for three behavioral addictions, whereas controls showed higher levels of behavioral addiction to drugs and alcohol. This may be because the patients in this study are stable, have received considerable psychoeducation, and are relatively adherent to their medication recommendations. Temperament and character traits may play roles both as risk and protective factors regarding behavioral addictions.
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