The importance of age over radioiodine avidity as a prognostic factor in differentiated thyroid carcinoma with distant metastases.
ABSTRACT Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) usually has a good prognosis and rarely develops distant metastases. Although it might be expected that avid radioiodine uptake in distant metastases would be associated with a favorable outcome, there are few long-term studies regarding this. The present study was performed to evaluate the influence of radioiodine uptake in distant metastases on the disease-specific survival (DSS) in DTC patients.
This retrospective study included 77 DTC patients with distant metastases (M1) who were treated with (131)I therapy from 1977 to the end of 2000 in our institution. The median follow-up of patients was 6.1 years. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test, and Cox Regression model, respectively.
Seventy-seven patients with M1 included 51 (66.2%) women and 26 (33.8%) men; 32 (41.6%) patients were <45 years old and 45 (58.4%) patients were >or=45 years old (range: 8-70 years; mean age: 45.4 years); histologically, there were 54 (70.1%) papillary carcinomas, 22 (28.6%) follicular carcinomas, and one case (1.3%) with an inconclusive histological report. The probability of DSS after appearance of M1 was 57.95% after 5 years, 48.31% after 10 years, and 39.46% after 15 and 20 years. In patients with iodine-avid distant metastases the 5-year DSS was 66.54%, the 10-year DSS was 55.09%, and the 15- and 20-year DSS were 44.99%. In contrast, patients with non-iodine-avid lesions had a 5- and 10-year DSS of 18.33%. This difference relating to the relationship between (131)I uptake in distant metastases and survival was significant (p = 0.0006). The proportion of patients with non-iodine-avid distant metastases that were >or=45 years old was significantly greater than the proportion of patients with non-iodine-avid distant metastases that were <45 years old (p < 0.01). If patients were matched for age, iodine non-avidity significantly shortened the survival in patients <45 years old (p < 0.001). According to multivariate analysis age had significantly greater influence on survival compared with iodine avidity (p < 0.001, p = 0.078, respectively).
Patients with distant metastases have a long-term survival that depends, in addition to other factors, on age and the degree of radioiodine uptake in distant metastases.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to define the factors that predict survival in patients with distant metastases (DM) from papillary thyroid carcinoma. We performed a retrospective review of the records of 100 consecutive patients (45 females and 55 males; age range, 8-91 yr) who developed DM after primary treatment at our institution from, 1940-1989. Median follow-up for the 20 survivors was 21 yr (range, 3-38). Cause-specific survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 yr were 40%, 27%, and 24%, respectively, and were not significantly different between the eras 1940-1954, 1955-1969, and 1970-1989 (P = 0.74). By univariate analysis, age at diagnosis of DM was the most important predictor of survival (P < 0.0001), with improved survival occurring in younger patients. Tumor-related factors associated with improved survival included complete resection of the primary tumor (P < 0.005), histological grade 1 (P = 0.006), diploid nuclear DNA (P = 0.03), and lung as first site of DM (P = 0.018). By univariate analysis, use of radioiodine therapy was associated with improved survival (vs. other forms of therapy, P < 0.001). However, by multivariate analysis only age, site of DM, and degree of extrathyroidal invasion of the primary tumor were identified as significant predictors of survival. None of the four treatment variables (external radiation, surgery, chemotherapy, or radioiodine) was a significant predictor of survival in the Cox model. Our retrospective data indicate that 1) outcome has changed little over 5 decades for patients with DM from papillary thyroid carcinoma; and 2) current forms of therapy do not appear to impact on survival.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 08/1995; 80(7):2041-5. · 6.43 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We assessed the therapeutic benefits of 131I treatment in patients with distant metastases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Of 2200 patients treated for differentiated thyroid carcinoma at our institution, 394 had lung and/or bone metastases. Two-thirds of the patients had 131I uptake in their metastases, but only 46% achieved a complete response. Prognostic factors for complete response were: younger age, presence of 131I uptake in the metastases and small extent of disease. The survival rate was 33% at 15 yr. As shown by multivariate analysis, favorable prognostic factors for survival were: younger age and time of metastases detection, well-differentiated histologic type of the thyroid tumor, presence of 131I type uptake in the metastases, small extent of the disease and year of discovery of metastases. In terms of survival, the benefits of 131I therapy cannot be demonstrated by prospective controlled studies. The present study clearly demonstrates, however, that treatment with 131I is one of the factors which accounts for survival; patients whose metastases concentrated 131I and who could be treated with radioiodine had higher survival rates. Patients who achieved complete response following treatment of distant metastases had a 15-yr survival rate of 89%, while those who did not achieve complete response had a survival rate of only 8%. The survival rate improved with the year of discovery of distant metastases, after 131I total-body imaging and serum thyroglobulin measurements were routinely used.Journal of Nuclear Medicine 05/1996; 37(4):598-605. · 5.77 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Differentiated thyroid cancer is a malignant tumour that has a fairly good prognosis, with patients surviving for many years. Multimodal therapy with surgery, radioiodine therapy and TSH suppressive medication is of proven efficacy. However, loss of differentiation is observed in up to one-third of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, paralleled by an increase in tumour grading and loss of thyroid-specific functions (thyrotropin receptor, iodine accumulation). Such tumours may no longer be amenable to standard treatment protocols, including TSH suppression and radioiodide therapy. Retinoic acids have been shown to exert re-differentiating effects on thyrocytes in various experimental studies and case reports, and it was on this basis that this pilot study was initiated. Patients with advanced thyroid cancer and without the therapeutic options of operation or radioiodide therapy were treated with 13- cis-retinoic acid at a dosage of 1.5 mg/kg body weight daily over 5 weeks. Parameters for assessment of the therapeutic effect were serum thyroglobulin (TG) levels, radioiodine uptake, and tumour size prior to and after retinoid treatment. Fifty patients were evaluated for response, classified as reduction in tumour size and TG levels, stable disease or disease progression. Thirteen patients showed a clear increase in radioiodine uptake, and eight a mild increase. TG levels were unchanged or decreased in 20 patients. Tumour size was assessable in 37 patients; tumour regression was observed in six, and there was no change in 22. In total, a response was seen in 19 patients (38%). Response to retinoid therapy did not always correlate with increased radioiodine uptake, so other direct antiproliferative effects have to be assumed. The encouraging results of the study and the low rate of side-effects with good tolerability of retinoids warrant further studies with altered inclusion criteria and employment of other redifferentiating drugs or combinations of agents.European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging 07/2002; 29(6):775-82. · 5.11 Impact Factor