The importance of age over radioiodine avidity as a prognostic factor in differentiated thyroid carcinoma with distant metastases.

Center of Nuclear Medicine, Oncology Institute of Vojvodina , Sremska Kamenica, Serbia.
Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association (Impact Factor: 2.6). 03/2009; 19(3):227-32. DOI:10.1089/thy.2008.0186
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) usually has a good prognosis and rarely develops distant metastases. Although it might be expected that avid radioiodine uptake in distant metastases would be associated with a favorable outcome, there are few long-term studies regarding this. The present study was performed to evaluate the influence of radioiodine uptake in distant metastases on the disease-specific survival (DSS) in DTC patients.
This retrospective study included 77 DTC patients with distant metastases (M1) who were treated with (131)I therapy from 1977 to the end of 2000 in our institution. The median follow-up of patients was 6.1 years. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test, and Cox Regression model, respectively.
Seventy-seven patients with M1 included 51 (66.2%) women and 26 (33.8%) men; 32 (41.6%) patients were <45 years old and 45 (58.4%) patients were >or=45 years old (range: 8-70 years; mean age: 45.4 years); histologically, there were 54 (70.1%) papillary carcinomas, 22 (28.6%) follicular carcinomas, and one case (1.3%) with an inconclusive histological report. The probability of DSS after appearance of M1 was 57.95% after 5 years, 48.31% after 10 years, and 39.46% after 15 and 20 years. In patients with iodine-avid distant metastases the 5-year DSS was 66.54%, the 10-year DSS was 55.09%, and the 15- and 20-year DSS were 44.99%. In contrast, patients with non-iodine-avid lesions had a 5- and 10-year DSS of 18.33%. This difference relating to the relationship between (131)I uptake in distant metastases and survival was significant (p = 0.0006). The proportion of patients with non-iodine-avid distant metastases that were >or=45 years old was significantly greater than the proportion of patients with non-iodine-avid distant metastases that were <45 years old (p < 0.01). If patients were matched for age, iodine non-avidity significantly shortened the survival in patients <45 years old (p < 0.001). According to multivariate analysis age had significantly greater influence on survival compared with iodine avidity (p < 0.001, p = 0.078, respectively).
Patients with distant metastases have a long-term survival that depends, in addition to other factors, on age and the degree of radioiodine uptake in distant metastases.

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    ABSTRACT:   The aim of this study was to identify the prognostic factors of long-term survival and optimal therapeutic protocol for patients with distant metastasis secondary to differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).   A retrospective review of 1665 patients with DTC treated at a regional tertiary hospital in Taiwan between 1986 and 2010 was performed. Among them, 207 patients were found to have distant metastasis. For a long-term outcome survey, 126 patients that had received at least 5 years (mean 9·6 ± 5·2 years) of follow-up after the diagnosis of distant metastasis were analysed for this study. Prognostic factor analysis included age, sex, histology, disease stage, type of surgical procedure, site of metastatic foci, (131) I avidity of tumour, thyroglobulin (Tg) level and accumulated therapeutic dose of radioiodine (RAI).   The mean age at diagnosis of distant metastasis was 46·4 ± 17·2 years. The female-to-male ratio was 2·1:1. The 10- and 15-year survival rates were 70·6% and 64·9%, respectively. The independent predictors of survival were younger age, surgical dissection of neck lymph nodes (LNs) and low TSH-stimulated Tg level (<400 μg/l) at the discovery of metastasis. Most cases of resolved (131) I-avid disease (79·2%) and disease-free remission (87·5%) received a cumulative dose no >600 mCi of (131) I. The mean cumulative doses of (131) I in both deceased and living patients were similar.   The prognosis of patients with distant metastasis from DTC within this study was found to be favourable. Survival may be improved by surgical dissection of neck LNs, but repeated (131) I therapy >600 mCi is not advised unless there is a high probability that it would benefit the patient.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Because patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) presenting with distant metastasis (DM) have a particularly poor prognosis, examining the prognostic factors in this group is essential. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic factors affecting cancer-specific survival (CSS) in DTC patients presenting with DM. METHODS: Of the 1227 DTC patients, 51 (4.2 %) presented with DM at diagnosis. All patients underwent a total thyroidectomy, followed by radioiodine (RAI) ablation and postablation whole body scan (WBS). Patients were considered to have an osseous metastasis if one of the metastatic sites involved a bone, while RAI avidity was determined by any visual uptake in a known metastatic site on the first WBS. Factors predictive of CSS were determined by univariate and multivariate analyses by the Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, older age (relative risk [RR] 1.050, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.010-1.091, P = 0.014), DM discovered before WBS (RR 3.401, 95 % CI 1.127-10.309, P = 0.030), follicular thyroid carcinoma (RR 3.095, 95 % CI 1.168-8.205, P = 0.025), osseous metastasis (RR 4.695, 95 % CI 1.379-15.873, P = 0.013), non-RAI avidity (RR 3.355, 95 % CI 1.280-8.772, P = 0.014), and external beam radiotherapy to DM (RR 3.241, 95 % CI 1.093-9.614, P = 0.034) were significant poor prognostic factors for CSS. In the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for other factors, osseous metastasis (RR 6.849, 95 % CI 1.495-31.250, P = 0.013) and non-RAI avidity (RR 7.752, 95 % CI 2.198-27.027, P = 0.001) were the two independent poor prognostic factors for CSS. Older age almost reached statistically significance (RR 1.055, 95 % CI 0.996-1.117, P = 0.068). CONCLUSIONS: DTC patients presenting with DM accounted for 4.2 % of all patients. Because osseous metastasis and RAI avidity were independent prognostic factors, future therapy should be directed at improving the treatment efficacy of osseous and/or non-RAI-avid metastases.
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Jasna Mihailovic