The Importance of Age over Radioiodine Avidity as a Prognostic Factor in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma with Distant Metastases
ABSTRACT Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) usually has a good prognosis and rarely develops distant metastases. Although it might be expected that avid radioiodine uptake in distant metastases would be associated with a favorable outcome, there are few long-term studies regarding this. The present study was performed to evaluate the influence of radioiodine uptake in distant metastases on the disease-specific survival (DSS) in DTC patients.
This retrospective study included 77 DTC patients with distant metastases (M1) who were treated with (131)I therapy from 1977 to the end of 2000 in our institution. The median follow-up of patients was 6.1 years. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test, and Cox Regression model, respectively.
Seventy-seven patients with M1 included 51 (66.2%) women and 26 (33.8%) men; 32 (41.6%) patients were <45 years old and 45 (58.4%) patients were >or=45 years old (range: 8-70 years; mean age: 45.4 years); histologically, there were 54 (70.1%) papillary carcinomas, 22 (28.6%) follicular carcinomas, and one case (1.3%) with an inconclusive histological report. The probability of DSS after appearance of M1 was 57.95% after 5 years, 48.31% after 10 years, and 39.46% after 15 and 20 years. In patients with iodine-avid distant metastases the 5-year DSS was 66.54%, the 10-year DSS was 55.09%, and the 15- and 20-year DSS were 44.99%. In contrast, patients with non-iodine-avid lesions had a 5- and 10-year DSS of 18.33%. This difference relating to the relationship between (131)I uptake in distant metastases and survival was significant (p = 0.0006). The proportion of patients with non-iodine-avid distant metastases that were >or=45 years old was significantly greater than the proportion of patients with non-iodine-avid distant metastases that were <45 years old (p < 0.01). If patients were matched for age, iodine non-avidity significantly shortened the survival in patients <45 years old (p < 0.001). According to multivariate analysis age had significantly greater influence on survival compared with iodine avidity (p < 0.001, p = 0.078, respectively).
Patients with distant metastases have a long-term survival that depends, in addition to other factors, on age and the degree of radioiodine uptake in distant metastases.
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ABSTRACT: Targeted therapy pinpointing specific alteration in cancer cells has gained an important role in the treatment of cancer. Compounds that re-induce thyroid-specific functions could be particularly useful in differentiated thyroid cancers by rendering them susceptible to radioiodine treatment, which is relatively specific and has few adverse effects. This review describes the rationale for radioiodine treatment, considering the targets of compounds with differentiation-inducing effects, and the impact of these drugs on the expression of thyroid-specific proteins and on iodine-uptake. We survey the results from the clinical trials thus far performed. We conclude that although retinoids, thiazolidinediones, histone deacetylase inhibitors and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors do increase the expression of thyroid-specific proteins, their clinical efficacy is limited. The relatively low rate of remissions in clinical trials with re-differentiating compounds could be due to low levels of the target, heterogeneity of iodine uptake into the tumor, poor correlation of radioiodine uptake and clinical remission, and/or the slow onset of the therapeutic effect. Although the mode of action is not clear, the combination of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and RAI treatment could improve clinical responses in non-radioiodine avid metastatic thyroid carcinoma.Cancer Treatment Reviews 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ctrv.2014.01.002 · 6.47 Impact Factor
Article: Clinical thyroidology.Thyroid 02/1990; 1(1):65-8. DOI:10.1089/thy.1990.1.65 · 3.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Differentiated thyroid cancer accounts for >90% of cases of thyroid cancer, with most patients having an excellent prognosis. Distant metastases occur in 10%-15% of patients, decreasing the overall 10-year survival rate in this group to 40%. Radioactive iodine has been the mainstay of treatment for distant metastases, with good results when lesions retain the ability to take up iodine. For patients with metastatic disease resistant to radioactive iodine, treatment options are few and survival is poor. Chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy have been used in these patients, but with disappointing results. In recent years, our understanding of the molecular pathways involved in thyroid cancer has increased and a number of molecular targets have been identified. These targets include the proto-oncogenes BRAF and RET, known to be common mutations in thyroid cancer; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor, associated with angiogenesis; and the sodium-iodide symporter, with the aim of restoring its expression and hence radioactive iodine uptake. There are now multiple trials of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, angiogenesis inhibitors, and other novel agents available to patients with metastatic thyroid cancer. This review discusses both traditional and novel treatments for metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer with a particular focus on emerging treatments for patients with radioactive iodine-refractory disease.The Oncologist 02/2010; 15(2):146-56. DOI:10.1634/theoncologist.2009-0190 · 4.54 Impact Factor