What Is the Cost of Maintaining a Kidney in Upper-Tract Transitional-Cell Carcinoma? An Objective Analysis of Cost and Survival
ABSTRACT For many years, the gold standard in upper urinary tract transitional-cell carcinoma (UT-TCC) management has been nephroureterectomy with excision of the bladder cuff. Advances in endourologic instrumentation have allowed urologists to manage this malignancy. The feasibility and success of conservative measures for UT-TCC have been widely published, but there has not been an objective cost analysis performed to date. Our goal was to examine the direct costs of renal-sparing conservative measures v nephroureterectomy and subsequent chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Secondary analysis includes a discussion of survival and quality-of-life issues for both treatment cohorts.
Retrospective review of a cohort of patients treated at our institution with renal-sparing ureteroscopic management of UT-TCC who were followed for a minimum of 2 years. The costs per case were based on equipment, anesthesia, surgeon fees, pathologic evaluation fees, and hospital stay. ESRD and CKD costs were estimated based on published reports.
From 1996 to 2006, 254 patients were evaluated and treated for UT-TCC at our institution. A cohort of 57 patients was examined who had a minimum follow-up period of 2 years. Renal preservation in our series approached 81%, with cancer-specific survival of 94.7%. Assuming a worst-case scenario of a solitary kidney with recurrences at each follow-up for 5 years v nephroureterectomy and dialysis for the same period, an estimated $252,272 U.S. dollars would be saved. This savings would cover the expenses of five cadaveric renal transplantations.
Conservative endoscopic management of UT-TCC in our experience should be the gold standard management for low-grade and superficial-stage disease. From a cost perspective, renal-sparing UT-TCC management is effective in reducing ESRD health care expenses.
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- "This minimally invasive approach can reduce the morbidity of treatment whilst preserving renal function. With the expanding role of renal sparing technique, low grade lesions in patients with normal contralateral kidneys can also be treated ureterorenoscopicaly. Recent reports suggest that endoscopic management can be an alternative treatment option for low grade superficial tumors even as a first line management. "
ABSTRACT: Instillation of Mitomycin C (MMC) should prevent implantation of cancer cells released during endoscopic treatment and prevent recurrences as seen in carcinoma of the bladder. TO DEVELOP AND EVALUATE A PROTOCOL FOR A SINGLE DOSE MMC INSTILLATION FOLLOWING HOLMIUM: YAG laser ablation of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (UUT-TCC). A single institute prospective study. MMC instillations protocol was designed and offered to patients between August 2005 and April 2011. Following tumor ablation, MMC was instilled into upper urinary tract (UUT) over 40 minutes. All the patients were regularly followed up. Twenty UUT units (19 patients) were managed for UUT-TCCs using our MMC protocol. Two UUT units had G1pTa tumors, 14 had G2pTa, 2 had G3pTa, and 2 had G3pT1. At a mean follow-up of 24 months (range 1-72 months), 13/20 (65%) of the UUT units remained cancer-free, 3 (15%) UUT units developed stricture and were treated with endoscopic dilatation, only 1 (5%) of these developed long-term complications. None of the patients developed postoperative renal impairment or systemic side-effects. Using a set standard protocol, MMC can safely be instilled into the UUT after TCC ablation with minimal complications or side effects, good preservation of renal function, and with a low recurrences rate comparable to the literature.Urology Annals 07/2013; 5(3):184-9. DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.115746
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ABSTRACT: Endoscopic management of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma has assumed an important role in diagnosis and treatment. The introduction of small diameter rigid and flexible ureteroscopes has permitted access to the upper tract. Biopsy techniques have been developed for accurate diagnosis, and the addition of lasers has given the urologists an excellent tool for treatment. Medical literature available relative to the endoscopic laser treatment of upper tract neoplasms has been reviewed. Ureteroscopic treatment has been characterized by good success with high recurrence rates, both in the upper tract and in the bladder. Bladder recurrence rates are similar to those seen after surgical treatment of upper tract tumors. Surveillance has been ureteroscopic since the other diagnostic options are inadequate. The holmium and neodymium:YAG lasers are the devices most commonly used now for the endoscopic treatment of upper tract tumors. Ureteroscopic treatment of upper tract neoplasms usually with ablation and resection using the neodymium and holmium:YAG lasers is a current acceptable procedure. This should be considered as one of the options in tumor treatment.World Journal of Urology 03/2010; 28(2):143-9. DOI:10.1007/s00345-010-0525-7 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transitional cell carcinoma of renal pelvis and ureter account was traditionally treated with nephroureterectomy. With the advent of rigid and flexible ureteroscopes endoscopic access to the ureter and renal pelvis for diagnosis and treatment has become a reality. We did fluorescence ureteroscopy using oral 5-ALA to diagnose upper tract urothelial tumours for four patients. Here we describe this technique and assess its feasibility to diagnose ureteric and renal pelvicalyceal tumours. A prospective pilot study was performed to assess the feasibility of PDD using oral 5-amino levulinic acid (ALA) for upper urinary tract tumours. Four patients underwent PDD guided flexible ureteroscopy of the upper urinary tract. Obvious exophytic tumour seen on white light was also seen as red fluorescence on blue light. All areas with red fluorescence were biopsied (including additional areas not seen on white light) and were confirmed to be transitional cell carcinoma. Photodynamic diagnosis using oral 5-ALA and subsequent treatment of upper tract urothelial tumours is safe and feasible with additional advantages of detecting lesions not visualised on conventional white light endoscopy.Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy 03/2010; 7(1):39-43. DOI:10.1016/j.pdpdt.2009.12.005 · 2.52 Impact Factor