Validation of high rates of nucleotide substitution in geminiviruses: phylogenetic evidence from East African cassava mosaic viruses.
ABSTRACT Whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses are major pathogens of the important crop cassava in Africa. The intensive sampling and sequencing of cassava mosaic disease-causing viruses that occurred in the wake of a severe outbreak in Central Africa (1997-2002) allowed us to estimate the rate of evolution of this virus. East African cassava mosaic virus and related species are obligately bipartite (DNA-A and DNA-B segments), and these two genome segments have different evolutionary histories. Despite these phylogenetic differences, we inferred high rates of nucleotide substitution in both segments: mean rates of 1.60x10(-3) and 1.33x10(-4) substitutions site(-1) year(-1) for DNA-A and DNA-B, respectively. While similarly high substitution rates were found in datasets free of detectable recombination, only that estimated for the coat protein gene (AV1), for which an additional DNA-A sequence isolated in 1995 was available, was statistically robust. These high substitution rates also confirm that those previously estimated for the monopartite tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) are representative of multiple begomoviruses. We also validated our rate estimates by comparing them with those depicting the emergence of TYLCV in North America. These results further support the notion that geminiviruses evolve as rapidly as many RNA viruses.
SourceAvailable from: Ismail Yusuf Rabbi
Dataset: Rabbi et al. 2014 Virus Research
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ABSTRACT: Begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) infection is devastating to a wide variety of agricultural crops including tomato, squash, and cassava. Thus, understanding the replication and adaptation of begomoviruses has important translational value in alleviating substantial economic loss, particularly in developing countries. The bipartite genome of begomoviruses prevalent in the New World and their counterparts in the Old World share a high degree of genome homology except for a partially overlapping reading frame encoding the pre-coat protein (PCP, or AV2). PCP contributes to the essential functions of intercellular movement and suppression of host RNA silencing, but it is only present in the Old World viruses. In this study, we analyzed a set of non-redundant bipartite begomovirus genomes originating from the Old World (N = 28) and the New World (N = 65). Our bioinformatic analysis suggests ∼120 nucleotides were deleted from PCP's proximal promoter region that may have contributed to its loss in the New World viruses. Consequently, genomes of the New World viruses are smaller than the Old World counterparts, possibly compensating for the loss of the intercellular movement functions of PCP. Additionally, we detected substantial purifying selection on a portion of the New World DNA-B movement protein (MP, or BC1). Further analysis of the New World MP gene revealed the emergence of a putative tyrosine phosphorylation site, which likely explains the increased purifying selection in that region. These findings provide important information about the strategies adopted by bipartite begomoviruses in adapting to new environment and suggest future in planta experiments.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e111957. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0111957 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recombination is a pervasive process generating diversity in most viruses. It joins variants that arise independently within the same molecule, creating new opportunities for viruses to overcome selective pressures and to adapt to new environments and hosts. Consequently, the analysis of viral recombination attracts the interest of clinicians, epidemiologists, molecular biologists and evolutionary biologists. In this review we present an overview of three major areas related to viral recombination: (i) the molecular mechanisms that underlie recombination in model viruses, including DNA-viruses (Herpesvirus) and RNA-viruses (Human Influenza Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus); (ii) the analytical procedures to detect recombination in viral sequences and to determine the recombination breakpoints, along with the conceptual and methodological tools currently used and a brief overview of the impact of new sequencing technologies on the detection of recombination, and (iii) the major areas in the evolutionary analysis of viral populations on which recombination has an impact. These include the evaluation of selective pressures acting on viral populations, the application of evolutionary reconstructions in the characterization of centralized genes for vaccine design, and the evaluation of linkage disequilibrium and population structure.Infection Genetics and Evolution 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.meegid.2014.12.022 · 3.26 Impact Factor