TET2 mutations and their clinical correlates in polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and myelofibrosis

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K (Impact Factor: 9.38). 03/2009; 23(5):905-11. DOI: 10.1038/leu.2009.47
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT High-throughput DNA sequence analysis was used to screen for TET2 mutations in bone marrow-derived DNA from 239 patients with BCR-ABL-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Thirty-two mutations (19 frameshift, 10 nonsense, 3 missense; mostly involving exons 4 and 12) were identified for an overall mutational frequency of approximately 13%. Specific diagnoses included polycythemia vera (PV; n=89), essential thrombocythemia (ET; n=57), primary myelofibrosis (PMF; n=60), post-PV MF (n=14), post-ET MF (n=7) and blast phase PV/ET/MF (n=12); the corresponding mutational frequencies were approximately 16, 5, 17, 14, 14 and 17% (P=0.50). Mutant TET2 was detected in approximately 17 and approximately 7% of JAK2V617F-positive and -negative cases, respectively (P=0.04). However, this apparent clustering of the two mutations was accounted for by an independent association between mutant TET2 and advanced age; mutational frequency was approximately 23% in patients > or =60 years old versus approximately 4% in younger patients (P<0.0001). The presence of mutant TET2 did not affect survival, leukemic transformation or thrombosis in either PV or PMF; a correlation with hemoglobin <10 g per 100 ml in PMF was noted (P=0.05). We conclude that TET2 mutations occur in both JAK2V617F-positive and -negative MPN, are more prevalent in older patients, display similar frequencies across MPN subcategories and disease stages, and hold limited prognostic relevance.

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    ABSTRACT: Corresponding author
    Molecular Cell 01/2015; 57(4). DOI:10.1016/j.molcel.2014.12.023 · 14.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery that ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins are α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases involved in the conversion of 5-methylcytosines (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxycytosine has revealed new pathways in the cytosine methylation and demethylation process. The description of inactivating mutations in TET2 suggests that cellular transformation is in part caused by the deregulation of this 5-mC conversion. The direct and indirect deregulation of methylation control through mutations in DNA methyltransferase and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) genes, respectively, along with the importance of cytosine methylation in the control of normal and malignant cellular differentiation have provided a conceptual framework for understanding the early steps in cancer development. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the cytosine methylation cycle and its implication in cellular transformation, with an emphasis on TET enzymes and 5-hmC. Ongoing clinical trials targeting the activity of mutated IDH enzymes provide a proof of principle that DNA methylation is targetable, and will trigger further therapeutic applications aimed at controlling both early and late stages of cancer development.
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    ABSTRACT: DNA methylation at the C-5 position of cytosine (5mC) regulates gene expression and plays pivotal roles in various biological processes. The TET dioxygenases catalyze iterative oxidation of 5mC, leading to eventual demethylation. Inactivation of TET enzymes causes multistage developmental defects, impaired cell reprogramming, and hematopoietic malignancies. However, little is known about how TET activity is regulated. Here we show that all three TET proteins bind to VprBP and are monoubiquitylated by the VprBP-DDB1-CUL4-ROC1 E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL4(VprBP)) on a highly conserved lysine residue. Deletion of VprBP in oocytes abrogated paternal DNA hydroxymethylation in zygotes. VprBP-mediated monoubiquitylation promotes TET binding to chromatin. Multiple recurrent TET2-inactivating mutations derived from leukemia target either the monoubiquitylation site (K1299) or residues essential for VprBP binding. Cumulatively, our data demonstrate that CRL4(VprBP) is a critical regulator of TET dioxygenases during development and in tumor suppression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Molecular Cell 12/2014; 57(2). DOI:10.1016/j.molcel.2014.12.002 · 14.46 Impact Factor

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