Department of Medicine, University of Arizona School of Medicine, GI Motility Laboratories at Southern Arizona VA Health Care System and University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, Arizona, USA.
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Abstract Objectives: The aims were: firstly, to review the definition and diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C, a subtype of IBS); secondly, to critically assess current therapies for IBS-C with a focus on effectiveness for abdominal pain; and thirdly, to review clinical studies evaluating the efficacy of linaclotide, a therapy recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of adults with IBS-C and chronic idiopathic constipation and in development for treatment of IBS-C worldwide. Methods: A comprehensive literature review was performed to summarize IBS-C and current treatments. MEDLINE and gastrointestinal society congress proceedings were searched to identify data from linaclotide clinical studies in adults with IBS-C published between January 2010 and August 2012. Results: IBS-C patients have chronic, relapsing symptoms. Rome III diagnostic criteria define the presence of chronic abdominal pain that improves with defecation and has onset associated with changes in stool frequency or form as a key element of IBS-C and other IBS subtypes. IBS-C patients generally are not completely satisfied with existing therapies. A therapy that treats bowel and abdominal symptoms effectively and can be taken safely on a chronic basis is a current unmet need for IBS-C patients. The guanylate cyclase-C agonist linaclotide has been shown to reduce visceral hypersensitivity in preclinical studies and to improve abdominal pain and constipation symptoms in phase 2 and 3 clinical trials of IBS-C patients. Conclusions: IBS-C is a functional gastrointestinal disorder with chronic, relapsing abdominal and constipation symptoms. By virtue of its effects in relieving abdominal pain by reducing visceral hypersensitivity and improving constipation symptoms by increasing intestinal secretion and accelerating transit, linaclotide may be uniquely positioned for a role in the management of IBS-C patients.
Current Medical Research and Opinion 01/2013; 29(2). DOI:10.1185/03007995.2012.754743 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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Functional abdominal pain in the context of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a challenging problem for primary care physicians, gastroenterologists and pain specialists. We review the evidence for the current and future non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options targeting the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Cognitive interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy and hypnotherapy have demonstrated excellent results in IBS patients, but the limited availability and labor-intensive nature limit their routine use in daily practice. In patients who are refractory to first-line therapy, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are both effective to obtain symptomatic relief, but only TCAs have been shown to improve abdominal pain in meta-analyses. A diet low in fermentable carbohydrates and polyols (FODMAP) seems effective in subgroups of patients to reduce abdominal pain, bloating, and to improve the stool pattern. The evidence for fiber is limited and only isphagula may be somewhat beneficial. The efficacy of probiotics is difficult to interpret since several strains in different quantities have been used across studies. Antispasmodics, including peppermint oil, are still considered the first-line treatment for abdominal pain in IBS. Second-line therapies for diarrhea-predominant IBS include the non-absorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5HT3 antagonists alosetron and ramosetron, although the use of the former is restricted because of the rare risk of ischemic colitis. In laxative-resistant, constipation-predominant IBS, the chloride-secretion stimulating drugs lubiprostone and linaclotide, a guanylate cyclase C agonist that also has direct analgesic effects, reduce abdominal pain and improve the stool pattern.
Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00535-014-0966-7 · 4.02 Impact Factor
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