Mechanisms of hypertension in the cardiometabolic syndrome.
ABSTRACT Arterial hypertension is often part of a constellation of anthropometric and metabolic abnormalities that occur simultaneously to a higher degree than would be expected by chance alone, supporting the existence of a discrete disorder, the so-called metabolic syndrome. It is the result of interactions among a large number of interconnected mechanisms, which eventually lead to both an increase in cardiovascular and renal risk, and the development of diabetes. Mechanisms involved in the metabolic syndrome are obesity, insulin resistance, and a constellation of independent factors, which include molecules of hepatic, vascular, and immunologic origin with pro-inflammatory properties. At each of these key points are interactions of demographics, lifestyle, genetic factors, and environmental fetal programming. Superimposing upon these are infections or chronic exposure or both to certain drugs that can also make their contribution. Skeletal muscle and the liver, not adipose tissue, are the two key insulin-response tissues involved in maintaining glucose balance, although abnormal insulin action in the adipocytes also plays a role in development of the syndrome. Factors commonly associated with and partly dependent on obesity, insulin resistance, such as overactivity of the sympathetic, stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems, abnormal renal sodium handling, endothelial dysfunction, and large vessels' alterations, may play a key role in the blood pressure elevation of the syndrome.
Article: Epidemiological and economic burden of metabolic syndrome and its consequences in patients with hypertension in Germany, Spain and Italy; a prevalence-based model.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and mortality. Our aim is to estimate the epidemiological and economic burden to the health service of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension in three European countries in 2008 and 2020. An age, sex and risk group structured prevalence based cost of illness model was developed using the United States Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria to define metabolic syndrome. Data sources included published information and public use databases on disease prevalence, incidence of cardiovascular events, prevalence of type 2 diabetes, treatment patterns and cost of management in Germany, Spain and Italy. The prevalence of hypertension with metabolic syndrome in the general population of Germany, Spain and Italy was 36%, 11% and 10% respectively. In subjects with hypertension 61%, 22% and 21% also had metabolic syndrome. Incident cardiovascular events and attributable mortality were around two fold higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome and prevalence of type 2 diabetes was around six-fold higher. The economic burden to the health service of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension was been estimated at €24,427, €1,900 and €4,877 million in Germany, Spain and Italy and forecast to rise by 59%, 179% and 157% respectively by 2020. The largest components of costs included the management of prevalent type 2 diabetes and incident cardiovascular events. Mean annual costs per hypertensive patient were around three-fold higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome compared to those without and rose incrementally with the additional number of metabolic syndrome components present. The presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension significantly inflates economic burden and costs are likely to increase in the future due to an aging population and an increase in the prevalence of components of metabolic syndrome.BMC Public Health 01/2010; 10:529. · 2.00 Impact Factor
Article: Overweight, air and noise pollution: Universal risk factors for pediatric pre-hypertension.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pediatric pre-hypertension (pre-HTN) has a complex multifactorial etiology. Although most cases are secondary to other disorders, a substantial number of children and adolescents have primary or essential HTN and pre-HTN. The gene-gene and gene-environment interactions should be considered in this context. The strong relationship of pre-HTN with environmental factors such as air pollution, noise pollution and passive smoking and obesity suggest that its prevalence will be escalating.Exposure to ambient particulate matters may increase blood pressure (BP) within hours to days. The underlying biologic pathways include autonomic nervous system imbalance and arterial vascular dysfunction or vasoconstriction because of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Likewise, tobacco smoke exposure of pregnant mothers increases systolic BP of their offspring in early infancy. Parental smoking also independently affects systolic BP among healthy preschool children. Noise exposure, notably in night, is associated with catecholamine secretion, increased BP and a pre-HTN state even in pre-school age children.Excess weight is associated with dysfunction of the adipose tissue, consisting of enlarged hypertrophied adipocytes, increased infiltration by macrophages and variations in secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids. These changes would result in chronic vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and sympathetic response, and ultimately to pre-HTN from childhood.Prevention and control of the modifiable risk factors of pre-HTN from prenatal period can have long-term health impact on primordial and primary prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases. This review presents a general view on the diagnosis, prevalence and etiology of pre-HTN along with practical measures for its prevention and control.Journal of research in medical sciences 09/2011; 16(9):1234-50. · 0.46 Impact Factor