Dietary supplementation with a specific combination of high protein, leucine, and fish oil improves muscle function and daily activity in tumour-bearing cachectic mice

Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
British Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.82). 03/2009; 100(5):713-22. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6604905
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cancer cachexia is characterised by metabolic alterations leading to loss of adipose tissue and lean body mass and directly compromises physical performance and the quality of life of cancer patients. In a murine cancer cachectic model, the effects of dietary supplementation with a specific combination of high protein, leucine and fish oil on weight loss, muscle function and physical activity were investigated. Male CD2F1 mice, 6-7 weeks old, were divided into body weight-matched groups: (1) control, (2) tumour-bearing, and (3) tumour-bearing receiving experimental diets. Tumours were induced by s.c. inoculation with murine colon adenocarcinoma (C26) cells. Food intake, body mass, tumour size and 24 h-activity were monitored. Then, 20 days after tumour/vehicle inoculation, the animals were killed and muscle function was tested ex vivo. Tumour-bearing mice showed reduced carcass, muscle and fat mass compared with controls. EDL muscle performance and total daily activity were impaired in the tumour-bearing mice. Addition of single nutrients resulted in no or modest effects. However, supplementation of the diet with the all-in combination of high protein, leucine and fish oil significantly reduced loss of carcass, muscle and fat mass (loss in mass 45, 52 and 65% of TB-con, respectively (P<0.02)) and improved muscle performance (loss of max force reduced to 55-64% of TB-con (P<0.05)). Moreover, total daily activity normalised after intervention with the specific nutritional combination (50% of the reduction in activity of TB-con (P<0.05)). In conclusion, a nutritional combination of high protein, leucine and fish oil reduced cachectic symptoms and improved functional performance in cancer cachectic mice. Comparison of the nutritional combination with its individual modules revealed additive effects of the single components provided.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Anorexia is a common symptom among cancer patients and contributes to malnutrition and strongly impinges on quality of life. Cancer-induced anorexia is thought to be caused by an inability of food intake-regulating systems in the hypothalamus to respond adequately to negative energy balance during tumour growth. Here, we show that this impaired response of food-intake control is likely to be mediated by altered serotonin signalling and by failure in post-transcriptional neuropeptide Y (NPY) regulation.Methods Two tumour cachectic mouse models with different food intake behaviours were used: a C26-colon adenocarcinoma model with increased food intake and a Lewis lung carcinoma model with decreased food intake. This contrast in food intake behaviour between tumour-bearing (TB) mice in response to growth of the two different tumours was used to distinguish between processes involved in cachexia and mechanisms that might be important in food intake regulation. The hypothalamus was used for transcriptomics (affymetrix chips).ResultsIn both models, hypothalamic expression of orexigenic NPY was significantly higher compared with controls, suggesting that this change does not directly reflect food intake status but might be linked to negative energy balance in cachexia. Expression of genes involved in serotonin signalling showed to be different between C26-TB mice and Lewis lung carcinoma-TB mice and was inversely associated with food intake. In vitro, using hypothalamic cell lines, serotonin repressed neuronal hypothalamic NPY secretion while not affecting messenger NPY expression, suggesting that serotonin signalling can interfere with NPY synthesis, transport, or secretion.Conclusions Altered serotonin signalling is associated with changes in food intake behaviour in cachectic TB mice. Serotonins' inhibitory effect on food intake under cancer cachectic conditions is probably via affecting the NPY system. Therefore, serotonin regulation might be a therapeutic target to prevent the development of cancer-induced eating disorders.
    Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle 03/2015; 6(1):84-94. DOI:10.1002/jcsm.12008 · 7.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Appetite is frequently affected in cancer patients leading to anorexia and consequently insufficient food intake. In this study, we report on hypothalamic gene expression profile of a cancer-cachectic mouse model with increased food intake. In this model, mice bearing C26 tumour have an increased food intake subsequently to the loss of body weight. We hypothesise that in this model, appetite-regulating systems in the hypothalamus, which apparently fail in anorexia, are still able to adapt adequately to changes in energy balance. Therefore, studying changes that occur on appetite regulators in the hypothalamus might reveal targets for treatment of cancer-induced eating disorders. By applying transcriptomics, many appetite-regulating systems in the hypothalamus could be taken into account, providing an overview of changes that occur in the hypothalamus during tumour growth. C26-colon adenocarcinoma cells were subcutaneously inoculated in 6 weeks old male CDF1 mice. Body weight and food intake were measured three times a week. On day 20, hypothalamus was dissected and used for transcriptomics using Affymetrix chips. Food intake increased significantly in cachectic tumour-bearing mice (TB), synchronously to the loss of body weight. Hypothalamic gene expression of orexigenic neuropeptides NPY and AgRP was higher, whereas expression of anorexigenic genes CCK and POMC were lower in TB compared to controls. In addition, serotonin and dopamine signalling pathways were found to be significantly altered in TB mice. Serotonin levels in brain showed to be lower in TB mice compared to control mice, while dopamine levels did not change. Moreover, serotonin levels inversely correlated with food intake. Transcriptomic analysis of the hypothalamus of cachectic TB mice with an increased food intake showed changes in NPY, AgRP and serotonin signalling. Serotonin levels in the brain showed to correlate with changes in food intake. Further research has to reveal whether targeting these systems will be a good strategy to avoid the development of cancer-induced eating disorders.
    Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle 11/2013; 5(2). DOI:10.1007/s13539-013-0121-y · 7.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer cachexia (CC), a syndrome characterized by anorexia and body weight loss due to low fat-free mass levels including reduced musculature, markedly worsens patient quality of life. Although stomach cancer patients have the highest incidence of cachexia, few experimental models for the study of stomach CC have been established. Herein, we developed stomach CC animal models using nude rats subcutaneously implanted with 2 novel cell lines: MKN45c185, established from the human stomach cancer cell line MKN-45, and 85As2, derived from peritoneal dissemination of orthotopically implanted MKN45c185 cells in mice. Both CC models showed marked weight loss, anorexia, reduced musculature and muscle strength, increased inflammatory markers, and low plasma albumin; however, CC developed earlier and was more severe in rats implanted with 85As2 than in those implanted with MKN45cl85. Moreover, human leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a known cachectic factor, and hypothalamic orexigenic peptide mRNAs were increased in the models, whereas hypothalamic anorexigenic peptide mRNAs were decreased. Surgical removal of the tumor not only abolished cachexia symptoms but also reduced plasma LIF levels to below detectable limits. Importantly, oral administration of rikkunshito, a traditional Japanese medicine, substantially ameliorated CC-related anorexia and body composition change. In summary, our novel peritoneal dissemination-derived 85As2 rat model developed severe cachexia, possibly caused by LIF from cancer cells, that was ameliorated by rikkunshito. This model should provide a useful tool for further study into the mechanisms and treatment of stomach CC.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 12/2013; 306(4). DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.00116.2013 · 4.09 Impact Factor

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