Dietary supplementation with a specific combination of high protein, leucine, and fish oil improves muscle function and daily activity in tumour-bearing cachectic mice

Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
British Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.84). 03/2009; 100(5):713-22. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6604905
Source: PubMed


Cancer cachexia is characterised by metabolic alterations leading to loss of adipose tissue and lean body mass and directly compromises physical performance and the quality of life of cancer patients. In a murine cancer cachectic model, the effects of dietary supplementation with a specific combination of high protein, leucine and fish oil on weight loss, muscle function and physical activity were investigated. Male CD2F1 mice, 6-7 weeks old, were divided into body weight-matched groups: (1) control, (2) tumour-bearing, and (3) tumour-bearing receiving experimental diets. Tumours were induced by s.c. inoculation with murine colon adenocarcinoma (C26) cells. Food intake, body mass, tumour size and 24 h-activity were monitored. Then, 20 days after tumour/vehicle inoculation, the animals were killed and muscle function was tested ex vivo. Tumour-bearing mice showed reduced carcass, muscle and fat mass compared with controls. EDL muscle performance and total daily activity were impaired in the tumour-bearing mice. Addition of single nutrients resulted in no or modest effects. However, supplementation of the diet with the all-in combination of high protein, leucine and fish oil significantly reduced loss of carcass, muscle and fat mass (loss in mass 45, 52 and 65% of TB-con, respectively (P<0.02)) and improved muscle performance (loss of max force reduced to 55-64% of TB-con (P<0.05)). Moreover, total daily activity normalised after intervention with the specific nutritional combination (50% of the reduction in activity of TB-con (P<0.05)). In conclusion, a nutritional combination of high protein, leucine and fish oil reduced cachectic symptoms and improved functional performance in cancer cachectic mice. Comparison of the nutritional combination with its individual modules revealed additive effects of the single components provided.

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    • "Murine C26 adenocarcinoma cells were cultured and suspended as described previously [7]. Under general anaesthesia (isoflurane/N2O/O2), tumour cells in 0.2 ml HBSS were inoculated subcutaneously into the right inguinal flank. "
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    ABSTRACT: Appetite is frequently affected in cancer patients leading to anorexia and consequently insufficient food intake. In this study, we report on hypothalamic gene expression profile of a cancer-cachectic mouse model with increased food intake. In this model, mice bearing C26 tumour have an increased food intake subsequently to the loss of body weight. We hypothesise that in this model, appetite-regulating systems in the hypothalamus, which apparently fail in anorexia, are still able to adapt adequately to changes in energy balance. Therefore, studying changes that occur on appetite regulators in the hypothalamus might reveal targets for treatment of cancer-induced eating disorders. By applying transcriptomics, many appetite-regulating systems in the hypothalamus could be taken into account, providing an overview of changes that occur in the hypothalamus during tumour growth. C26-colon adenocarcinoma cells were subcutaneously inoculated in 6 weeks old male CDF1 mice. Body weight and food intake were measured three times a week. On day 20, hypothalamus was dissected and used for transcriptomics using Affymetrix chips. Food intake increased significantly in cachectic tumour-bearing mice (TB), synchronously to the loss of body weight. Hypothalamic gene expression of orexigenic neuropeptides NPY and AgRP was higher, whereas expression of anorexigenic genes CCK and POMC were lower in TB compared to controls. In addition, serotonin and dopamine signalling pathways were found to be significantly altered in TB mice. Serotonin levels in brain showed to be lower in TB mice compared to control mice, while dopamine levels did not change. Moreover, serotonin levels inversely correlated with food intake. Transcriptomic analysis of the hypothalamus of cachectic TB mice with an increased food intake showed changes in NPY, AgRP and serotonin signalling. Serotonin levels in the brain showed to correlate with changes in food intake. Further research has to reveal whether targeting these systems will be a good strategy to avoid the development of cancer-induced eating disorders.
    Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle 11/2013; 5(2). DOI:10.1007/s13539-013-0121-y · 7.32 Impact Factor
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    • "Increased mass and proportion of high metabolic tissue such as the liver occurs in cachexia and has been shown to contribute significantly to this increase in energy expenditure [76]. Cachectic patients also show an increase in the oxidation of branched-chain amino acids from muscle proteins for use in gluconeogenesis [77], which may be triggered by this increase in energy expenditure, and would ultimately contribute to muscular degeneration in cancer cachexia. However, the traditionally accepted view that increased REE and hypermetabolism are essential factors in the pathogenesis of the disease has been disputed, with a heterogeneous picture of REE emerging that range from 60 to 150 % of the norm [78–81]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Many forms of cancer present with a complex metabolic profile characterised by loss of lean body mass known as cancer cachexia. The physical impact of cachexia contributes to decreased patient quality of life, treatment success and survival due to gross alterations in protein metabolism, increased oxidative stress and systemic inflammation. The psychological impact also contributes to decreased quality of life for both patients and their families. Combination therapies that target multiple pathways, such as eicosapentaenoic acid administered in combination with exercise, appetite stimulants, antioxidants or anti-inflammatories, have potential in the treatment of this complex syndrome and require further development.
    10/2012; 4(2). DOI:10.1007/s13539-012-0087-1
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    • "EPA has been generally accepted to have the potential to assist in the treatment of cancer cachexia, in particular as part of a combined approach to therapy [26], [27], however further elucidation of the exact mechanisms is required. In the current study, animals treated with EPA had significantly delayed tumor development, and therefore improved outcomes, which may have been due to EPA's previously described anti-tumor action [28], rather than anti-cachectic action alone. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer cachexia is a wasting condition, driven by systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. This study investigated eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in combination with oxypurinol as a treatment in a mouse model of cancer cachexia. Mice with cancer cachexia were randomized into 4 treatment groups (EPA (0.4 g/kg/day), oxypurinol (1 mmol/L ad-lib), combination, or control), and euthanized after 29 days. Analysis of oxidative damage to DNA, mRNA analysis of pro-oxidant, antioxidant and proteolytic pathway components, along with enzyme activity of pro- and antioxidants were completed on gastrocnemius muscle. The control group displayed earlier onset of tumor compared to EPA and oxypurinol groups (P<0.001). The EPA group maintained body weight for an extended duration (20 days) compared to the oxypurinol (5 days) and combination (8 days) groups (P<0.05). EPA (18.2±3.2 pg/ml) and combination (18.4±3.7 pg/ml) groups had significantly higher 8-OH-dG levels than the control group (12.9±1.4 pg/ml, P≤0.05) indicating increased oxidative damage to DNA. mRNA levels of GPx1, MURF1 and MAFbx were higher following EPA treatment compared to control (P≤0.05). Whereas oxypurinol was associated with higher GPx1, MnSOD, CAT, XDH, MURF1, MAFbx and UbB mRNA compared to control (P≤0.05). Activity of total SOD was higher in the oxypurinol group (32.2±1.5 U/ml) compared to control (27.0±1.3 U/ml, P<0.01), GPx activity was lower in the EPA group (8.76±2.0 U/ml) compared to control (14.0±1.9 U/ml, P<0.05), and catalase activity was lower in the combination group (14.4±2.8 U/ml) compared to control (20.9±2.0 U/ml, P<0.01). There was no change in XO activity. The increased rate of weight decline in mice treated with oxypurinol indicates that XO may play a protective role during the progression of cancer cachexia, and its inhibition is detrimental to outcomes. In combination with EPA, there was little significant improvement from control, indicating oxypurinol is unlikely to be a viable treatment compound in cancer cachexia.
    PLoS ONE 09/2012; 7(9):e45900. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0045900 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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